Chapter XIV: 1850 to 1899 CE

by Jesse Potter aka Elkin Vanaeon
 On this ninth day of August in the year of our Lord and Lady 2005 CE

1850 to 1860 CE - US - Cholera epidemic spreads from European settlers to the Indians of the Great Basin and southern plains.

1853 CE - England - Dr. Isaac Brown, a prominent British surgeon and president of the Medical Society of London, creates a surgical procedure to remove the clitoris from women on the grounds that "masturbation caused epilepsy and convulsive diseases."

1853 to 1856 CE - United States acquires 174 million acres of Indian lands through 52 treaties. All treaties are subsequently broken.

1855 to 1856 - The Yakima War in Washington, involves tribes of the Yakimas, Walla Wallas, Umatillas, and Cayuses.

1858 CE - Fraternitas Rosae Crucis - Pascal Beverly Randolph (1825-1875) founded the oldest Rosicrucian body in the United States, the Fraternitas Rosae Crucis in 1858. Randolph developed an early interest in the occult and in 1850 traveled to Europe and was initiated into a Rosicrucian Fraternity in Germany. On his third trip to Europe in 1858, he was made the Supreme master for the Western World, at a conclave headed by Supreme Grand Master Eliphas Levi. He returned to the United States and founded the Fraternitas Rosae Crucis. Two years later he returned to Europe and was initiated in 1861 in the Order of the Rose, a group headed by Rosicrucian historian Hargrave Jennings, and traveling on the Syria, he was initiated by the Ansaireh.

1860 CE - US - Paiute War (also called the Pyramid Lake War) in Nevada, involving the Southern Paiutes.

1861 to 1865 CE - US - In 1861, during the U.S. Civil War, the Confederate government organizes their own Bureau of Indian Affairs, promising Indians the return of their tribal lands to encourage their support - most tribes remain neutral. The Five Civilized Tribes are compelled after the war to accept a treaty relinquishing the western half of the Indian Territory to 20 tribes from Kansas and Nebraska as punishment for their support of the Confederacy.

1863 CE - US - This year marked the "Emancipation of Slaves" in the United States in midst of the Civil War.

1864 CE - US - Indians are regarded as competent witnesses under federal law and allowed testifying in trials.

1865 CE - US - United States gives contract to Protestant missionary societies to operate Indian schools.

1866 CE - Robert Wentworth Little (1840-1878) formed Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, open only to Masons.

1866 CE - Gregor Mendel (Austrian monk) - writes, "The weakest, most useless members of society should be allowed to die."

1867 CE - Canada - British North American Act establishes Confederation of Canada. First Dominion Parliament assembled. The earlier "Royal Proclamation" was considered an encumbrance upon the Government of Canada. The "Constitution Acts" enacted in 1867 and later in 1982 gave the federal government the exclusive responsibility for all matters regarding Indians and Indian lands. In 1868, an Indian Act shapes new administration for Indian affairs where the position of the federal government is adversarial in arguing that the federal government alone had sovereign authority over the landmass known as Canada. There were no longer "aboriginal rights!" The Canadian courts followed the patterns set by, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand, acting in the sole interest of the New Government by:

1867 CE - United States purchases Alaska from Russia, adding Eskimo and Aleut population to its own.

1868 CE - U.S. - Indians are denied the right to vote as a result of the 14th Amendment.

1869 to 1870 CE - First Vatican Council, 20th ecumenical, affirms doctrine of papal infallibility (i.e. when a pope speaks ex cathedra on faith or morals he does so with the supreme apostolic authority, which no Catholic may question or reject).

1870 CE - US - President Grant transfers control of Indian agencies from the army to twelve different Christian denominations. An annual appropriation of $100,000 was provided by Congress for the support of industrial and other schools among the tribes." Various churches and missionary societies appoint all Indian agents and personnel employed on reservations, acting with overall authority in Indian facilities for the government by 1869. Attendance to mission schools for all native children aged six through sixteen became mandatory on many reservations."

Indian education from 1880 through 1920 was seen as a means of reforming and assimilating Indian people through placement in institutions, sanctioned by the government, to educate and replace their traditional ways. Federal Indian policy legalized the removal of Indian children from their families, by any means, and enrolled into boarding schools. Secular as well as missionary educators used the indoctrination of Christian denominational creeds, especially Protestantism, as the means to civilize the young in traditional Christian values. More crudely put, "Reformation through Christianity" was seen as essential for "killing the Indian while leaving the man."

1870 to 1890 CE - The use of Peyote as a ritual tradition spreads from Mexican Indians to the Comanches, Kiowas, and other Native American tribes.

1870 CE - Africa - Zulu Wars begin with Great Britain.

1871 CE - US - Treaty-making period formally ends as Congress passes law forbidding further negotiations of treaties with Indian tribes. The Cherokee Tobacco Case of 1870, ruled that the Cherokees are not exempt from taxes on produce. Congress declared Indians are subject to all Executive Orders. Under the orders of General Sheridan, Western Indians are forbidden to leave reservations without permission of civilian agents.

1871 CE - Indian burial grounds are invaded by white men seeking bones for manufacture of buttons. Wholesale killing of buffalo is authorized.

1871 to 1912 CE - Africa - Europeans promote traditional inter-ethnic hostilities in order to promote European industry in search of cheap raw materials. Christian and racist ideology is directed towards the African 'heathen.' Missionaries begin the "Civilizing Mission" in African colonies, cutting across traditionally established boundaries, homelands, and ethnic cultures.

1873 - Copenhagen - Snorre Sturlassoens Historieskrivning is published by Storm, G.

1875 CE - The 'Keswick Movement', also known under the titles of 'Victorious Christian Life' and the 'Higher Christian Life', established the foundations of fundamentalism for the later Baptists, Congregationalists, and Presbyterian Evangelicals.

1874 CE - The Brunot Agreement negotiated in 1873 and signed by the President in 1874 called for the removal of Indians from the area of the mines, entailing all of the San Juan Mountains and most of their foothills. The Utes were allowed to keep a narrow strip of land along the New Mexico border and along the Utah border of the Colorado Territory. It separated the Utes into northern and southern tribes. The Weeminuche, Capote, and Mouache were referred to as southern Utes.

1875 CE - President Grant signs an Executive Order setting aside land in San Diego County and later allowing the establishment of reservations for the Santa Ysabel, Pala, Sequan (also spelled Sycuan), La Jolla, Rincon, Viejas, and Capitan Grande bands.

1876 CE - Canada enacts Canadian Indian Act, which defines Indian policy and gives individual Indians the right to seek enfranchisement as Canadian citizens by renouncing their rights and privileges as Indians.

1876 to 1877 CE - The Battle of Little Bighorn is the Sioux War for the Black Hills, involving the tribes of the Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho, under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.

1877 CE - Blackfeet cede land to the Dominion of Canada.

1877 CE - US - The severe San Diego drought results in attacks on Indians holding water resources, part of the reservation land set aside for the Indians of San Diego County by President Grant in 1875 is withdrawn from Indian use and restored to the general settlement on May 3rd, 1877.

1878 CE - Congress makes appropriation to provide for Indian Police, a policy that in 1883 brings about the Court of Indian Offenses with authorization for tribal units to administer justice in all but major crimes. In the Major Crimes Act of 1885, federal courts are formally given jurisdiction over Indian cases involving major crimes.

1879 CE - US - Richard Pratt founds the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, with the philosophy of assimilating Indians into white culture.

1879 CE - Africa - Zulu victory over British at Isandhlwana, but followed by British conquest of Zulu at Rourke's Drift, South Africa.

1879 to 1885 CE - US - North America National Indian Defense Association is founded.

1880 CE - Canada - The federal Department of Indian Affairs (DIA; created in 1880; later to be the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, or DIAND) under the terms of the Indian Act set about the programs necessary for the assimilation of the native aboriginal people of Canada. The definition of who was and was not "an Indian", was one of the decisions placed under government control in the first Indian Act. Patriarchal attitudes of this period stipulated the father's lineage was to be the deciding factor of the continuation of Indian status. Aboriginal men who married non-aboriginal women remained Indian, while aboriginal women who married non-aboriginal men lost their Indian status, as did their children.

1881 to 1901 CE - Phillip Schaff was invited to chair the committee whose responsibility was the revision of the English Bible. He brought together scholars from the leading Protestant denominations of Great Britain and the United States.

1833 CE - The United Ancient Order of Druids was established due to a split in the Ancient Order of Druids between the mystics and those who want a friendly society. The mystical side continued as the Albion Lodge of the Ancient Order of Druids of Oxford, claiming descent from the Mount Haemus Grove."

1883 CE - Sir Francis Galton, the proponent of 'hereditarianism,' who declared in 1883 that the 'Age of Eugenics' had begun. The Eugenics Education Society was the name of the group at the time of its founding in 1907. (The name of the Eugenics Society today is the Galton Institute)

1884 CE - Jehovah's Witnesses predict end of world and confuse Jesus Christ with Michael the Archangel. In his Watchtower magazine and his book Millennial Dawn [1886], [Charles Taze] Russell emulated William Miller in expounding his own idiosyncratic historicist interpretation of Daniel in Revelation, including a predicted end of the world in 1914. The outbreak of war in that year gave a strong stimulus to 'Russelism'.

1884 CE - Canadian Parliament passes the Indian Advancement Act, encouraging "Democratic" election of chiefs by Indian bands. The Mohawks at St. Regis, Ontario, resist the provision, wanting to keep their traditional method of choosing leaders. Canada outlaws the Potlatch Ceremony among Northwest Coast Indians.

1884 CE - US Congress acknowledges the rights of Eskimos to Alaskan territorial lands.

1885 CE - US - The Last of the great herds of buffalo is exterminated.

1885 CE - Africa - The countries of Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Spain, and Portugal hold the "Berlin Conference" due to battles over the ill-defined boundaries of various holdings. These ruling powers of Europe with the United States define their individual spheres of influence and lay down the rules for future occupation of the coasts of Africa and navigation of the Zaire and Niger rivers. The African states were not invited to the Berlin conference or sign any of the agreements. Africans resisted the decisions of the treaties made in Europe, but revolts in Algeria, the western Sudan, Dahomey, Ashantiland, Sierra Leone, and the Fulani Hausa states were eventually defeated.

1886 CE - Canada - Mohawk Indians of the Caughnawaga Reserve in Quebec are trained in high-steel construction to work on a bridge across the St. Lawrence River. This starts a tradition among the Iroquois.

1886 CE - Italy - Leland, Charles Godfrey - In 1886, while in Italy, American folklorist, lecturer and prolific author whose immersion in Gypsy lore and witchcraft played a role in the revival of the latter in the 20th century, especially in America.  Leland met a Florentine Witch "Maddalena" who was a hereditary Witch with ancient Etruscan roots.  She was born in Tuscany into a family of Witches and was educated by her grandmother, aunt and stepmother in the ways of the Craft.  They became close friends and she introduced him to other Witches and divulged many secrets of the Craft to him which was put into the books Aradia, and Etruscan Roman Remains.  He was initiated into the craft by "Maddalena".  Gardner & Valiente's Charge of the Goddess is taken and slightly changed from the charge found in Leland's Aradia.  He was born on August 15, 1824 and died March 20, 1903. His wrote "Aradia or Gospel of the Witches" (1889), Etruscan Roman Remains!

1887 CE - "Kabbala Denudata - The Kabbalah unveiled" several books of the Zohar, translated (and edited) by S.L. "MacGregor" Mathers from the Latin translation of Knorr von Rosenroth is published.

1887 CE - Congress passes the General Allotment Act (the Dawes Act) in which reservation lands are given to individual Indians in parcels. Indian Nation loses millions of acres of land.

1888 CE - Russia - St. Anthony's Fire cropped up during the famine in which tainted food was eaten in the Russian epidemic of 1888.

1888 CE - The occult societies teach that the new dispensation has begun. "Following the DRAMA IN THE HEAVENS the new Dispensation which had its actual beginning in 1888 will have reached its apex as has the old, and that a savior, a Great Leader -- one greater than any before -- will be, possibly already is, born."

1888 CE - The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn was born, descended from esoteric traditions including:

The SRIA (which included Hargrave Jennings in its membership!) - a scholarly and ceremonial association open to Master Masons only. The ruling triumvirate that managed the affairs of the SRIA was three Master Masons:

P.B. Randolph mentions meeting Eliphas Levi on his trip to Rosicrucian gatherings in France.

1889 CE - "The 'Rhodes secret society' was formed after 1889 using the economic resources of South Africa to extend and perpetuate the British Empire.

1890 CE - U.S. - Andrew Carnegie writes a series of eleven essays called "The Gospel of Wealth", which stated free enterprise and capitalism no longer existed in the United States, because he and Rockefeller owned everything, including the government, and that competition was impossible unless they allowed it.

1890 CE - Charles Godfrey Leland writes "Etruscan Magic & Occult Remedies": The Gospel of Aradia," in which he associates the goddess worship of Diana as a survival of the ancient ways in Witch Cults of that period.

1890 CE - "The Golden Bough" is written by Sir James Frazier (original 12-volume version).

1890 CE - US - Ghost Dance Movement led by the Paiute prophet Wovoka gains influence among western Indians. At Wounded Knee, United States troops massacre 350 Sioux Indians en route to a Ghost Dance celebration.

1892 CE - US - Francis Bellamy, a Baptist Minister and Christian Socialist writes the pledge of allegiance. His intent was to commemorate the 400-year anniversary of Columbus' discovery of the New World.

1893 CE - US - The National Spiritualist Association of Churches was founded, presently headquartered in Lily Dale New York, to strengthen the chaotic Spiritualist movement by establishing principles, standards and education. By 1998, it claims to have 2,800 full members, 143 local churches or temples and 12 summer camps.

1893 CE - First World Parliament of Religions - Nearly 140,000 attended the World Parliament of Religions where Shinto priests discoursed to African bishops, Buddhist monks lectured at Cumberland Baptists, Theosophists, Confucians, and Christian Scientists 'found their hands clasped in one unbroken circle.'

1893 CE - Hawaii - Queen Liliuokalani to issued statement yielding authority to the United States Government rather than the Provisional Government:

"I Liliuokalani, by the Grace of God and under the Constitution of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Queen, do hereby solemnly protest against any and all acts done against myself and the Constitutional Government of the Hawaiian Kingdom by certain persons claiming to have established a Provisional Government of and for this Kingdom.

"That I yield to the superior force of the United States of America whose Minister Plenipotentiary, His Excellency John L. Stevens, has caused United States troops to be landed a Honolulu and declared that he would support the Provisional Government.

"Now to avoid any collision of armed forces, and perhaps the loss of life, I do this under protest and impelled by said force yield my authority until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon facts being presented to it, undo the action of its representatives and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the Constitutional Sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands." Done at Honolulu this 17th day of January, A.D. 1893.

The Republic of Hawaii ceded 1,800,000 acres of crown, government and public lands of the Kingdom of Hawaii, without the consent of or compensation to the Native Hawaiian people of Hawaii or their sovereign government. The Events leading to the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii were:

On January 14, 1893, John L. Stevens, the United States Minister assigned to the sovereign and independent Kingdom of Hawaii conspired with a small group of non-Hawaiian residents of the Kingdom of Hawaii, including citizens of the United States, to overthrow the indigenous and lawful Government of Hawaii.

The military commander of the United States armed forces assigned to Hawaii, caused armed naval forces of the United States to invade the sovereign Hawaiian nation on January 16, 1893, and to position themselves near the Hawaiian Government buildings and the Iolani Palace to intimidate Queen Liliuokalani and her Government;

on the afternoon of January 17,1893, a Committee of Safety that represented the American and European sugar planters, descendants of missionaries, and financiers deposed the Hawaiian monarchy and proclaimed the establishment of a Provisional Government

1893 CE - U.S. - President Grover Cleveland Opposes the Annexation of Hawaii!

In December of 1893, after being in office for nine months, Grover Cleveland withdrew the treaty of annexation to Hawaii that Benjamin Harrison had submitted to the Senate, justifying his action by citing before Congress the results of an investigation his administration had recently undertaken by stating,

But for the landing of the United States forces upon false pretexts respecting the danger to life and property the committee would never have exposed themselves to the pains and penalties of treason by undertaking the subversion of the Queen's Government.

But for the presence of the United States forces in the immediate vicinity and in position to afford all needed protection and support the committee would not have proclaimed the Provisional Government from the steps of the Government building.

And finally, but for the lawless occupation of Honolulu under false pretexts by the United States forces, and but for Minister Stevens's recognition of the Provisional Government when the United States forces were its sole support and constituted its only military strength, the Queen and her Government would never have yielded to the Provisional Government, even for a time and for the sole purpose of submitting her case to the enlightened justice of the United States.

Believing, therefore, that the United States could not, under the circumstances disclosed, annex the islands without justly incurring the imputation of acquiring them by unjustifiable methods, I shall not again submit the treaty of annexation to the Senate for its consideration.

1894 CE - Lady Vere de Vere is recorded as having investigated witchcraft in the Tyrol region of Italy. Whereupon she wrote an article in La Rivista of Rome (June of 1894) stating that "...the Community of Italian Witches is regulated by laws, traditions, and customs of the most secret kind, possessing special recipes for sorcery."

1894 CE - Adolf Josef Lanz (Liebenfels) identifies blue-eyed, blond-haired "Aryans" as good and the various dark races as the evil, this creates a dualistic philosophy of religion based on Racism.

1895 CE - Professor Milani, the director of Archaeological Museum in Florence and Etruscan Historian, was familiar with the works of both Lady Vere de Vere and Charles Leland and is quoted in having stated that various elements of ancient Etruscan occultism were "marvelously preserved" in the "Italian Witch Tradition."

1896 CE - Africa - Ethiopians under Emperor Menelik II successfully resist European conquest, annihilating Italians at the Battle of Adwa (or Aduwa). By 1914, only Ethiopia in the east and Liberia in the west remain independent of European colonial control.

1897 CE - First Zionist Congress. Dr. Theodore Herzl conducted the first Zionist Congress in Basel, Switz.

1898 CE - England - Vaccination Act of 1898. People opposed to the use of mandatory vaccinations began holding elections for the establishing of "boards of guardians". They established over 600 boards in England by 1898 who pledged not to enforce the law. The Act of 1898 contained the first "conscience clause", although no claims of conscience were ever recorded as having been approved by administrators of the vaccination laws or the magistrates.

1898 CE - North America Curtis Act dissolves tribal governments; civil governments are instituted for Indian Territory.

1899 CE - "Aradia: Gospel of the Witches" is published by Charles Godfrey Leland.

1899 to 1902 CE - Africa - Anglo-Boer War in South Africa. While British "win" the war, they must make concessions to Afrikaner (Boer) political organizations for internal control of South Africa, opening path for Afrikaners to free themselves eventually of British domination and, in turn, dominate the black African majority in South Africa.

1899 CE - Georg von Schoenerer associates the Pan-German movement with the new Lutheran movement, accounting for about 30,000 Protestant conversions in Bohemia, Styria, Carinthia and Vienna between 1899 and 1910.


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