Chapter XIII: 1700 to 1849 CE

by Jesse Potter aka Elkin Vanaeon
 On this ninth day of August in the year of our Lord and Lady 2005 CE

1700 to 1800 CE - The Portuguese, the Dutch, and other Europeans imposed their belief systems on the West Africans. They were driven by their own religious and social idealism of slavery being considered ethical under the existing religious standards of that period. The enslavement of Africans in Christian civilized society was seen as being a benefit or betterment to the African people, saving them from tribal wars, famine, and paganism. Christian scriptures used as examples of promoting slavery were:

Within many of the African kingdoms, the taking of slaves was commonplace as they fought with each other. Europeans merely exploited the practice of the slave Trade when they arrived, treating people as a economic commodity to be stripped along with the other resources of the land.

1700 CE - "Two marked epidemics of religious fervor occur in France early in the eighteenth century in which peasants were seized with convulsions and fell to the ground in apparent seizures, to later rise and begin to prophesy to those about them:

1712 CE - Jane Wenham of Walkern in Herefordshire is the last publicly known person convicted of witchcraft in England.

1713 CE - The majority of the Dutch clergy in 1713 refused to acknowledge a papal bull condemning Jansenism and consequently left the Catholic Church, their orders remained valid. They formed the Old Catholic Church and consecrated their own bishops, whose orders were technically valid. This resulted in the emergence of 'Catholic Protestantism'.

1722 CE - The date of the last public execution for witchcraft in Scotland.

1725 CE - King Frederick William I of Prussia ordered all Romani (Gypsies) over 18 years of age to be hanged.

1735 to 1740 CE - The Great Awakening of Jonathan Edwards introduced revivals of emotional epidemics of altered states in "England, Scotland, and Ireland in the eighteenth century. John Wesley records numerous instances of persons falling to the ground under preaching 'as if struck by lightning.'

It was during this period a Methodist sect called "Jumpers", who originated in Cornwall, bore close similarity to the jerker of the revival of 1800."

1736 CE - The Statute of James 1 (1604) was repealed in both Scotland and England, discontinuing the 'Witchcraft Acts' in both countries. The practice of branding with knives or irons to those declared as witches was continued however, as a form of persecution well into the 19th century.

1738 CE - The Methodist Church founded by Rev John Wesley.

1743 CE - John Wesley included a prohibition of buying, selling, or drinking of spirits in the general rules of the Methodist church.

1745 CE - The Puritans begin to complain as female convicts are being shipped to Pennsylvania in large quantities.

1745 CE - Father Louis Debaraz at Lyons is recorded as being the last person executed for witchcraft in France.

1749 CE - Girolamo Tartarotti associates the ancient cult of Diana with Witch Cults in his book Del Congresso Nottorno Delle Lammie.

1761 CE - The Queen of Hungary decided to convert the Romani (Gypsies), they were not permitted to:

1763 CE - Canada - the Royal Proclamation of 1763 established that the First Nations are recognized as sovereign authorities in those lands, which are reserved from the influence of the federal government. It affirmed that the "...several Nations or Tribes with whom We are connected ... should not be molested or disturbed..." in Indian lands, and lands reserved for their use.

1775 CE - Last official execution for witchcraft in Germany (of Anna Maria Schwiigel at Kempten in Bavaria).

1776 CE - America - Ties with England are broken and the American colonies begin to adopt the Dutch personification of Father Christmas (Kris Kringle) as the traditional symbol of Christmas in order to distance themselves from Britain.

1778 CE - Polynesia - Pre Contact culture, prior to the arrival of the first Europeans in 1778, the Native Hawaiian people lived in a highly organized, self-sufficient, subsistent social system based on communal land tenure with a sophisticated language, culture, and religion.

1786 CE - On September 9, 1786 George Washington stated - "I never mean to possess another slave by purchase; it being among my first wishes to see some plan adopted, by which slavery in this country may be abolished by slow, sure and imperceptible degrees." (Fritz Hirschfeld , George Washington and Slavery, A Documentary Portrayal, 1997)

1781 CE - Henry Hurle established the Ancient Order of Druids in London, as an esoteric society patterned on Masonic lines.

1786 CE - The Virginia Assembly passed Thomas Jefferson's "Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom", state support of religion became prohibited.

1787 CE - U.S. Constitution was adopted and religious tests for public service under the federal government was prohibited.

1787 CE - All witchcraft laws in Austria are repealed.

1787 CE - America - Freedman Richard Allen, 27, and other black people were pulled off their knees at a "white" Methodist church. He later founds the Free African Society at Philadelphia. With Absalom Jones and others, Allen establishes the African Methodist Episcopal Church while working to improve the economic and social conditions of Americans.

1787 CE - New South Wales replaces North America as a dumping ground for the transporting of female convicts, in which they are not sold. The commissioned officers are given their pick of the women, then the non-commissioned officers, and the privates and finally male convicts that have completed sentences and allowed to choose from what is left.

1788 to 1789 CE - The Protestant Episcopal Church fully becomes fully established in America as ties with the Church of England are cut.

1789 CE - America - The Bill of Rights is passed by Congress.

Late 17th century CE - German settlers began to arrive in Pennsylvania, the bulk as immigrants in the first half of the 18th century. The term Pennsylvania "Dutch" is a corruption of the German word "Deutch" meaning German. Three distinct groups of German immigrants came to Pennsylvania:

1790 CE - First US Census reported 3,500,000 free citizens and 500,000 slaves.

1791 CE - Africans and mulattos in Saint Domingue revolt against slavery which resulted in 2,000 whites and 10,000 Africans killed. Sugar plantations were burned but 70,000 tons of sugar could still be produced.  

1800 CE - The Great Revival in the West began with the preaching of Jonathan Edwards in 1735. Later the Kentucky Revival began at the end of that century, which fathered similar movements in the country by 1830 and again about 1850."

They were seen performing what was termed exercises by John Wesley, who recorded them as:

1800 CE to Present - Shamanistic Cultures in Mexico are found working within modern Native American groups least affected by Christianity. These cultures are in the mountainous areas to the east and west of central Mexico among the cultures of the Nahua, Sierra hu (Sierra Otom), Totonac, Teenek (Huastec) Tepehua, Cora, and Huichol. The traditional Curandero shamans are perceived as being able to see and manipulate the animating forces of nature. Their quest for knowledge had spiritual rewards beyond the ability to heal or cure illness, since the community was involved in rituals and supported the shaman as a religious leader.

1801 to 1877 CE - Brigham Young, Mormon leader, colonized Utah.

1803 CE - Australia - The first white settlers arrived in Tasmania and began the killing Aborigine by 1806. Aboriginal children were abducted for use in forced labor, while the women were raped, tortured, and given poisoned flour. The men were usually shot on sight. Settlers were legally authorized to shoot Aborigines on sight in 1824. In 1828, the Governor declared martial law and soldiers and settlers arrested or killed any aborigine found in settled districts.

George Robinson, an appointed conciliator, collected surviving remnants of 123 aborigine, which were resettled and protected on Flinders Island between 1829 and 1834. By 1835, between 3000 and 4000 Aborigines were killed because of the spearing of cattle, being considered "wild animals", "vermin", "scarcely human", "hideous to humanity", "loathsome", and a "nuisance". Settlers had killed over 10,000 aborigine by 1908.

1807 CE - British Parliament passed an act prohibiting British subjects from engaging in the slave trade after March 1, 1808

1810 to 1875 CE - The Pentagram is recognized as being evil due to the beliefs of a defrocked French Catholic deacon called Alphonse Louis Constant, who took the name of Eliphas Levi! The pentagram became associated with the double points up and one point down as negative magick, seen to symbolize a Goat's Head by Christians who associated the Baphomet (a horned goat drawn by Levi) as being the epitome of evil. Eliphas Levi wrote three monumental works on magic:

1815 CE - The Indonesian volcano on Tambora erupted in 1815, which caused almost two years of unusually cold climate around the world. The annual means temperatures in Europe were one to two degrees Centigrade lower than normal. Harvests were late or failed altogether and grain prices rose as famine became widespread." Tambora was twenty times more powerful than the 1981 Mt. St. Helen eruption in the United States ( seven on the eight-point volcanic explosion index).

1820's CE - The American Colonization Society arranged to transport freed slaves back to a colony on the West African coast in what became the independent country of Liberia.

1821 CE - In 1821, James Haldane Stewart published Hints for a General Union of Christians for Prayer for the Outpouring of the Holy Spirit.

1821 CE - The Sacred Formulas of The Cherokee were written by the shamans of the tribe in Cherokee characters invented by Sikw'ya (Sequoyah) in 1821. The formulas had been orally passed down from remote antiquity until the invention of the Cherokee syllabary, which enabled the priests of the tribe to put them into writing. There are nearly six hundred formulas in the collection covering every subject pertaining to the daily life and thought of the Indian. This included the embodiment of almost the whole of the ancient religion of the Cherokees.

1826 to 1893 CE - The independence of the Kingdom of Hawaii is recognized by the United States, extended full and complete diplomatic recognition to the Hawaiian Government, and entered treaties with the Hawaiian monarchs to govern commerce and navigation.

1827 CE - The Mormon Church is founded by Joseph Smith as a result of reported visions of the Angel Moroni.

1828 to 1835 CE - Edward Irving, a minister of a Scotch Presbyterian chapel in London, known for his charismatic preaching, sharp social criticism, and proclamations of Christ's imminent return, taught a lecture at Edinburgh on John's Final Apocalypse. The Council of the London Presbytery excommunicated him in 1830 for the heresy of teaching that Jesus' earthly nature was sinful. Irving continued to preach until his death in 1834 -- he also taught the "Glossalalia", speaking in tongues, as one of the 'signs and wonders' foretold by Jesus as a sign of the last days."

1830 CE - The "Trails of Tears" or the "Holocaust of the Five Civilized Tribes of North America." The Indian Removal Act called for the relocation of eastern Indians to an Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Andrew Jackson spoke about the Indian removal in the year of 1830 in which he stated it will:

Senator's Daniel Webster and Henry Clay spoke out against removal. Reverend Samuel Worcester, missionary to the Cherokees, challenged Georgia's attempt to extinguish Indian title to land in the state, winning the case before the Supreme Court in 1832, the Supreme Court decides in their favor, but Andrew Jackson ignores the decision.

In 1835, the U.S. Government used the Treaty of New Echota to justify the removal. The treaty, signed by about 100 Cherokees, known as the Treaty Party, relinquished all lands east of the Mississippi River in exchange for land in Indian Territory and the promise of money, livestock, and various provisions and tools. The Cherokee National Council had previously passed a law that called for the death penalty for anyone who agreed to give up tribal land. The signing and the removal led to bitter factionalism and the deaths of most of the Treaty Party leaders in Indian Territory. From 1831-39, the Five Civilized tribes of the Southeast are relocated to the Indian Territory. The Cherokee "Trail of Tears" takes place in 1838-39. The Five Civilized Tribes were comprised of:

"The Trail of Tears" - was actually made up of several trails that the Five Tribes traveled on their way to their new lands. Many Indian people died - the majority of which were Cherokee, because of famine or disease and harsh living conditions. It was during this period, which took ten years, that over 70,000 Indians were forced to move to certain areas assigned to tribes in the new Indian Territory. The government promised this land to them "as long as grass shall grow and rivers run." The land that they were given lasted till about 1906, when they were forced to move to other reservations.

1832 to 1833 CE - The British abolish slavery in West Indies.

1834 CE - Congress reorganizes the Indian offices, creating the U.S. Department of Indian Affairs (still within the War Department). The Trade and Intercourse Act redefines the Indian Territory and Permanent Indian Frontier, and gives the army the right to quarantine Indians.

1835 CE - The Roma (Gypsy) are hunted in Jutland (Denmark) as " a bag of over 260 men, women and children."

1835 to 1901 CE - Edward Irving founds the Catholic Apostolic Church. The Irvingite movement, a precursor of Pentecostalism in England in the 1800s, was named after its leader, Edward Irving. "In 1835, Irving's followers organized the Catholic Apostolic Church, led by twelve apostles, of whom at least one was expected to be alive at the Second Coming. When the last of the original twelve died at an advanced age in 1901, the sect died out."

1836 CE - The House of Rothschild buys land in Palestine in 1836. [Zebi] Kalischer appealed to Mayer Amschel [who by now had changed his name to Rothschild] to buy out completely the land of Israel or at least Jerusalem and particularly the Temple area in order to 'bring about the miraculous redemption from below."

1836 CE - The Colony of South Australia and the city of Adelaide were established. The aboriginal Kaurna people were dispossessed of their lands. Many died through the loss of traditional lands, culture and existing life structures that were not available to them later. Women were raped and their children forcefully removed, indoctrinated with Christian belief systems, and forced to learn English. The Kaurna population declined rapidly and those who survived were either forced to move to the fringes and small towns outside of the city, or relocated against their will to mission stations in other Aboriginal peoples lands.

1837 CE - Upper Missouri, US - Smallpox epidemic spreads among the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara tribes. From 1837-70, at least four different smallpox epidemics ravage western tribes from contact with European settlers.

1839 to 1842 CE - John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood rediscovered Mayan ruins in Central America.

1840 CE - The Damascus Affair begins Jewish emigration to Palestine. Father Thomas, a Capuchian of the Catholic faith, disappeared and it was reputed that Jews had murdered him for ritual purposes. French and Syrian authorities joined in and many Jewish adults and children were arrested, tortured, and some were even killed. This resulted in the decision of many of the Jewish people working on Rothschild's projects in Palestine.

1843 CE - North America - Russian-Greek Orthodox Church establishes the first mission school for Eskimos in Alaska.

1844 CE - Frederich Delitzsch, author of a Hebrew dictionary, established about three thousand copying mistakes in the original text of the "Original Transcripts", the most prominent of them, the Codex Sinaiticus written in the fourth century AD, like the Codex Vaticanus found in the Sinai Convent in 1844. It contains sixteen thousand corrections, which can be traced back to seven correctors. Many passages were altered three times and then replaced by a fourth "original text."

1846 CE - The founding meeting of the Evangelical Alliance was in the Freemason's Hall of London. A meeting in Scotland commemorating the 200th anniversary of the Westminster Assembly issued a plea for closer unity. Presbyterian William Patton of New York wrote to British Congregationalist John Angell James, recommending an interchurch conference to outline the truths on which churches agreed. A series of discussions and prayer gatherings led to a General Conference held in London August 19 to September 2, 1846. Eight hundred leaders from fifty-two 'bodies of Christians' in eight nations decided to form a confederation under the name 'The Evangelical Alliance.'

1848 CE - U.S. - Hostilities with Mexico end with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The United States pledges in the treaty to respect Indian land rights and not to place Indians "under the necessity of seeking new homes." The Kumeyaay Indian nation is split between two countries. California becomes a U.S. Territory. Shortly before the Treaty is signed, the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill sparks the California gold rush. An unprecedented population boom soon overwhelms the remaining California Indians and much of their land.

 


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