Chapter VIII: 1 BCE to 699 CE

by Jesse Potter aka Elkin Vanaeon
 On this ninth day of August in the year of our Lord and Lady 2005 CE

43 CE - Britain - Cunobelinus is the king who ruled just before the Roman invasion.

48 to 49 CE - Council of Jerusalem, 1st Christian Council, doctrine regarding circumcision and dietary law is agreed to by apostles and presbyters, written in a letter addressed to "the brothers of Gentile origin in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia."

49 CE - Paul wrote before his journey to the Council of Jerusalem, "The term Galatia refers to the central part of Asia Minor where the Celtic tribes eventually settled after their conflicts with the Romans and Macedoniansin." This was part of an epistle written in response to a report that Galatian churches were being taken over by the false teaching of certain Judaizers who professed Jesus, yet sought to place gentile converts under the requirements of the Mosaic Law.

49 CE - Rome - Emperor Claudius orders Christians expelled.

60 to 64 CE - The Colossian church, which was predominantly gentile, was threatened by heresy due to a religious system (Gnosticism) that combined elements from Greek speculation, Jewish legalism, and Oriental mysticism. It involved a view of the body and nature as a whole.

Included in this system was:

According to Paul, in Colossians, there is no need for speculation, mystical visions, or ritualistic regulations since faith in Christ is sufficient.

64 CE - Rome - Emperor Nero (37 - 68) initiates widespread persecution of Christians by accusing them of having started the fire, which destroyed large sections of Rome.

70 CE - Jerusalem is destroyed and remaining records of Judea have been abandoned and lost. Flavius Josephus records the destruction of Solomons Temple, "However, one cannot but wonder at the accuracy of this period thereto relating; for the same month and day were now observed, as I said before, wherein the holy house was burnt formerly by the Babylonians. Now the number of years that passed from its first foundation, which was laid by king Solomon, till this its destruction, which happened in the second year of the reign of Vespasian, are collected to be one thousand one hundred and thirty, besides seven months and fifteen days; and from the second building of it, which was done by Haggai, in the second year of Cyrus the king, till its destruction under Vespasian, there were six hundred and thirty-nine years and forty-five days."

70 CE - Basilides (Gnostic) writes the Exigetica, referring to Sermon on the Mount, the Rich Man and Lazarus. Ptolemy recorded astrological ideas from Enuma Anu Enlil in his Apotelesmatika, he records 1,022 stars in Almagest.

86 CE - The Romans begin conquering the northern parts of the Black Sea, including the east side of the Sea of Aesov, Aesar-land. Odin gathered his tribes and fled to the Northlands where they arrive at the Baltic Sea and settle first on the Danish island Fyn, were Odin founds the settlement at Gudme called 'Odense', which means "Wotan's (Woden's) Sanctuary." It is located off the East Coast of Jutland in the Baltic Sea. The settlement was later referred to in the eighth century Anglo-Saxon Chronicles by Nennius in which the Saxon lineage of Wecta of Woden, Witta of Wecta, Wihtgils (who was the son of Witta), and Hengest and Horsa who were sons of the Wihtgils originated.

98 CE - Jutland (Denmark) - The roman historian Tacitus writes "Germania", in which he states: "These people (of northern Germany and southern Denmark), each one of which when isolated has nothing remarkable, worship Nerthus in common, that is to say Mother Earth. They believe that she intervenes in human affairs and passes from one to another of the tribes in a wagon. On an island in the sea there is a sacred copse of woods and, in this woods, a wagon covered with a veil which is reserved to her and which only the priest has the right to touch. He divines the moment when the goddess is present in her sanctuary and accompanies her, with all the marks of devotion, while she goes forth in her wagon, drawn by cows. These are days of rejoicing, and the places that she honors by her presence and accept for their hospitality are all in celebration. They do not make wars, nor do they take up arms at all during this time, and every object of iron is locked away. It is a single moment of time for peace and tranquillity, known and enjoyed by all, and it lasts until the priest returns with the goddess to her temple, after she has been satisfied in her contact with men. The wagon with its veil and, if it can be believed, the goddess herself, are then bathed in a hidden, sacred lake. The slaves who accompany her during this ceremony are immediately swallowed by the lake."

100 CE - Egypt - The Coptic Church becomes a religious minority, claiming descent from the ancient Egyptians. The word Copt is derived from the Arabic word qubt ("Egyptian"), which is associated with the Egyptian temples of Amun and the Bnia-Amin, or Children of Amun, who presided there.

The Coptic Church claimed succession to the "See of Alexandria", by having been founded and Christianized by Saint Mark. By the fourth century Egyptian Christianity developed it's own distinct dogmas and practices. When Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire the Coptic traditions came into conflict. The Coptic Church finally seceded from Rome 150 years later upon having rejected the decision of the Council of Chalcedon that declared Christ had a dual nature, both human and divine, believing instead that he had a single, divine nature. The Coptic Church's clerical hierarchy was mostly patriarchal with its own pope and synod (council of senior priests) whose Gnostic teachings regarded thought processes to be keys, which unlock most of the mysteries of the Gnosis:

140 CE - China - Taoist Alchemy text written by Wei Po-yang (fl. 140 CE). It still is practiced today in its internal (yogic) form.

156 to 172 CE  - Asia Minor; Phrygia, was the center of worship of Cybele (of whom Montanus was a priest). "Montanism arose under the leadership of Montanus and two female prophets, Prisca and Maximillia, who were deemed oracles of the Holy Spirit. Montanus began preaching that the Spirit had seized him, spoke as the Holy Spirit, taught of the impending Judgment Day and encouraged ecstatic prophesying and asceticism. Tertullian joined the movement shortly after 200 CE and became its greatest convert. The Novation the Donatists, and the Cathari became descendants of this movement.

190 CE - Christian council to determine "official" date of Easter.

200 CE

200 CE - Tibetan region - Buddhism and its teachings affect the religion in the kingdom of Shang-Shung (South Tibet).

200 CE - France (Rhne-Alpes region, SC) - Irenaeus, missionary bishop of the Graeco-Gaulish Church of Lyon, ushers in the campaign of the Orthodox Church against the Gnostics, complaining in particular of women celebrating the Eucharist with the gnostic teacher Marcus. Tertullian expresses similar outrage: "These heretical women - how audacious they are! They have no modesty; they are bold enough to teach, to engage in argument, to enact exorcisms, to undertake cures, and it may be, even to baptize!" Tertullian specified "It is not permitted for a woman to speak in church nor is it permitted for her to teach, nor to baptize, nor to offer [the eucharist], nor to claim for herself a share in any masculine function - not to mention any priestly office. Marcion had gone as far as to appoint women as priests and bishops.

230 to 250 CE - Rome - The bishop of Alex (Demetrius) condemns Origen at the Christian council of Rome. In 248 Origen was cited as starting a rumor (recorded by Celsus) that "Jesus fabricated the account of his birth from a virgin. His statement of "Her carpenter husband, to whom she was betrothed, drove her out because she had committed adultery with [Roman] soldier named Panthera." She gave birth to Jesus in secret when left poor and homeless, Jesus later spent time in Egypt, where he hired himself out as a laborer, learned magic, and so came to claim the title of God." (CC1.28-32, Marginal Jew, Meier, p. 223)

254 CE - Nicaea - Letters of Origen, Jesus and God one substance, at Council of Nicaea in 325, compiled the "Hexapla",

300 CE

300 to 700 CE - Ethiopia - Rise of Axum or Aksum and conversion to Christianity, Rome had conquered Egypt, Carthage, and other North African areas; which became the granaries of the Roman Empire, and the majority of the population converted to Christianity. Axum spent its religious zeal carving out churches from rocks, and writing and interpreting religious texts.

306 CE - The Council of Elvira prohibits eating, marriage, and sex between Christians and Jews.

312 CE - The Religion of Mithras had evolved to where Mithra, the God-mediator (symbolized by the sun) and Ahriman, was the prince of darkness, along with Ormuzd formed the Persian trinity. Teachings involved the immortality of the soul - where the good went to paradise and the wicked were purified in hell. December the 25th was a holy day and Sunday was their day of worship. Cyrus the Great and Darius spread Mithraism when the Medes and Persians finally became a world power in 600 BCE.

By 312 CE, Mithraism and Christianity are in direct competition with each other. The teachings of Christianity have retained all the trappings of Mithraism and when Constantine had adopted Christianity, which guaranteed his godhead, this tipped the scales of balance promoting Christianity into a new order of Kingship under god.

 314 CE - The Council of Ancyra associates the term abortificant with pharmacy, of which ten years penance is required. Those practicing Divination, heathen customs, or sorcery require five years penance. Under the Cannon Laws:

Those practicing Gnosticism are being accused of treason and poisoning by conjuration and adultery, by 373 CE authorities are persecuting Gnostics with impunity.

325 CE - Constantinople - Emperor Constantine convened The First Ecumenical Council of Nicaea and establishes the Nicene Creed as the fundamental statement of Christian doctrine. One of the main teachings in dispute at this time was by Arius who stated "Christ was not equal in divinity to God." The Council of Nicaea rejected his teachings and declared that "Jesus was equal in divinity to God", and declared the teachings of Arius (Arianism) a heresy.

Constantine was originally a follower of Mithras (the solar ancient Iranian god of light portrayed on coins as the "Invincible Sun" and worshipped late into the Christian era). In 330 CE, Constantine renamed the city of Byzantium, Constantinople and made it the capital of the Roman Empire. He had a column erected for the ceremonial opening of the metropolis with the Emperor and the invincible sun on it. Constantine murdered some of his close relatives the same year he reinvented Christianity:

He chose to use the ancient symbols of power of the pentagram as well as the chi-rho (a symbolic form of the cross) on his personal seal and amulet. Helena, his mother, is credited with the discovery of the religious relic called "The True Cross," which enabled Constantine to be canonized by the Armenian, Greek, and Russian Churches. The "Cross", is still revered as the symbol for present day Christianity.

325 CE - Novatians merge with the Donatists.

364 CE - The Church Council of Laodicea, ordered all previous religious observances conducted on Saturday, were to be conducted on Sunday. Sunday became the new Sabbath as "Christians shall not Judaize and be idle on Saturday, but shall work on that day."

367 CE - Britain - Saxons, Picts, and Irish attack Britain - reviving Celtic paganism in Britain

381 CE - First Council of Constantinople convened by Theodosius I, emperor of the East and recent convert to Christianity, drew up the dogmatic statement of the "Trinity," defining the Holy Spirit as having the same divinity expressed for Jesus as being equal in divinity to God" by the earlier Council of Nicaea. The Nicene Creed was reformulated since the original statement by the Council of Nicaea had been lost, the work of this council set the orthodox teaching of the Trinity as it is presently viewed today. The sessions of the Council, which were also attended only by bishops of the East, lasted two months during which it:

383 CE - Gaul - Priscillian of Avila is executed, accused of Manichaeism. He was a wealthy layman who studied the stars (which was called astrology at this time, since astronomy wasn't acknowledged until the 17th century) and devoted his life to the deeper understanding of philosophy. He was charged with Manichaeism due to his beliefs in abstinence and celibacy under the guidance of Paul, which stated "Know ye not that ye are the temple of God", as a devoted Christian. He was appointed as bishop of Avila and taught sensual pleasures were evil and to be a true Christian was to abstain from marriage, meat, and wine. Other bishops that shared his beliefs were Instantius, Salvianus, and Hyginus of Cordova. The Orthodox attitude of Spanish and Aquitanian bishops as well as the councils of the Church of Rome led to the arrest and deposing of Instantius in Treves. Priscillian appealed to the emperor, with the result that he and six of his companions were arrested and held captive. The Synod of Bordeaux, who's territory included Treves, judged heresy under the application of the Theodosian law, gave their approval to burn to death Priscillian as well as his companions in 385 CE. The official decree reasoned upon his death was the accusation of magic and licentious orgies. This led to the Priscillian movement against the Orthodox Church, which ceased to exist when the Council of Braga in 563 CE condemned it as an organized cult.

384 CE - Theodosius ordered the closing of Egypt's pagan temples and adherence to Christianity (although the temple dedicated to the goddess Isis at Philae, in the country's far south, continued to function until 536 CE).

387 CE - Ireland and Wales - Saint Patrick was born in what is now Kilpatrick, near Dumbarton, Scotland, he was known for:

Before St. Patrick, the Celts worshipped the harvest god Crom Drubh, known as "the dark bent one." Legend tells how Crom Drubh would spend the cold winter in the Aine's Sidhe (underworld) seeking golden sheaves of wheat to carry upon his back to bring the warmth of spring to the land. The ancient celebration of Aoine Chrom Dubh began on the Friday before the last Sunday in July, lasting for three days and ending in the pilgrimage to the summit of Cruachan Aigle (meaning "the act of celebrating or holding festivals"). His consort was Aine, the presiding harvest goddess of Ireland who resided atop Cruachain Aigle. Women in want of children climbed Cruachain Aigle to be present when the mountain goddess gave birth to her child at Lughnasa. In taking part in the divine birth, they would return the foot of the mountain and celebrate through dance, music and lovemaking as late as the 1840's.

Present day documentation showed Patrick never visited the sites of "Croagh Patrick", "Lough Derg", or "Tara". Yet to this day Thousands of people make the pilgrimage up "Croagh Patrick" (or "The Reek"; known as "Ireland's Holy Mountain"), paying homage to St Patrick.

394 CE - The Council of Carthage was the first council to uphold doctrines of prayers for the dead and purgatory.

395 to 410 CE - Greece and Rome - The Visigoth King Alaric invaded Athens in 396 CE and later Rome in 410 CE.

395 CE - The Roman Empire cuts ties with Egypt, which becomes an extension of the Byzantine Empire. This lasted until the arrival of Islam in 641 CE.

400 CE

400 CE - Ireland - The Druid Priesthood slowly begins to fade as the Celts begin to change over in favor of Christianity, from that of their old religion. Christianity never totally eclipses Druidic paganism as poets, lawgivers, genealogists and historians carry on their memory and assume many of their functions.

400 to 500 CE - Ireland - The Pre-Celtic peoples finally meld to having one Gaelic language and one culture, which the Dl Riata of Antrim introduces to Scotland.

400 CE to 1300 CE - North America - Fremont Culture becomes the ancestral people of the Ute Indians.

400 to 1500 CE - Eastern France experiences a string of epidemics, which was at the time called "holy fire" or "hell's fire". The monastic Order of St. Anthony was founded later to care for the sufferers of this malady, which then became named St. Anthony's Fire. This was such a great affliction that in the year 994 alone, over 40,000 people died of the disease. It was later established that rye was the staple grain of the poor in Europe at this time and the fungus Ergot was later discovered in the 19th century to have been the caused of these outbreaks in Europe.

430 CE - The civil law of the Roman Empire decreed death for heresy.

431 CE - The Ecumenical Council of Ephesus denounces the teachings of Nestorius, who argued that Christ had completely separate "Human" and "Divine" natures. In addition to voting that Christ was fully human and fully divine at the same time, it also voted that "Mary is the Mother of God" as well as of Jesus Christ.

449 CE - It was the introduction of the later records of the "Saxon lineage of the Witta", who became Britain's sovereign rulers of the province of Kent, that the wars against the other Celtic tribes were recorded and lawlessness began to be addressed. This is seen in the writings of:

The records of 449 CE established:

Chapter 31 of The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, mentions that after the above-said war between the Britons and Romans, the assassination of their rulers, and the victory of Maximus, who slew Gratian, and the termination of the Roman power in Britain, they were in alarm forty years. Vortigern then reigned in Britain. In his time, the natives had cause of dread, not only from the inroads of the Scots and Picts, but also from the Romans, and their apprehensions of Ambrosius.

In the meantime, three vessels, exiled from Germany, arrived in Britain. They were commanded by Horsa and Hengist, brothers, and sons of Wihtgils. (The two Jute chieftains and brothers, Hengest and Horsa, were the sons of Wihtgils; Wihtgils was the son of Witta, Witta of Wecta, Wecta of Woden (from this line of Woden arose all our royal kindred, and that of the Southumbrians also). Upon their arrival (having landed in Britain in a place that is called Ipwinesfleet) - the power, language and customs of Britain shifted dramatically.)

Chapter 36 of The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, after the Saxons had continued some time in the island of Thanet, Vortigern promised to supply them with clothing and provision on condition that they would engage to fight against the enemies of his country. But the barbarians having greatly increased in number, the Britons became incapable of fulfilling their engagement; and when the Saxons, according to the promise they had received, claimed a supply of provisions and clothing, the Britons replied, "Your number is increased; your assistance is now unnecessary; you may, therefore, return home, for we can no longer support you;" and hereupon they began to devise means of breaking the peace between them.

Chapter 37 of The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, but Hengist, in whom united craft and penetration, perceiving he had to act with an ignorant king, and a fluctuating people, incapable of opposing much resistance, replied to Vortigern, "We are, indeed, few in number; but, if you will give us leave, we will send to our country for an additional number of forces, with whom we will fight for you and your subjects." Vortigern assenting to this proposal, messengers were despatched to Scythia, where selecting a number of warlike troops, they returned with sixteen vessels, bringing with them the beautiful daughter of Hengist.

(The King of the Britons, Wurtgern also known as Votgern, had invited them to assist and support him in his fight against his enemies (tribal marauders from Ireland and Scotland, as well as the Picts). They then sent for more assistance from the Jutes, the Angles and eventually the Old Saxons (the Jutes and Angles were both from what in now present-day Denmark and the Old Saxons from northern Germany and the Netherlands)

And now the Saxon chief prepared an entertainment, to which he invited the king, his officers, and Ceretic, his interpreter, having previously enjoined his daughter to serve them so profusely with wine and ale, that they might soon become intoxicated. This plan succeeded; and Vortigern, at the instigation of the devil, and enamoured with the beauty of the damsel, demanded her, through the medium of his interpreter, of the father, promising to give for her whatever he should ask. Then Hengist, who had already consulted with the elders who attended him of the Oghgul race, demanded for his daughter the province, called in English, Centland, in British, Ceint, (Kent.) This cession was made without the knowledge of the king, Guoyrancgonus, who then reigned in Kent, and who experienced no inconsiderable share of grief, from seeing his kingdom thus clandestinely, fraudulently, and imprudently resigned to foreigners. Thus the maid was delivered up to the king, who slept with her, and loved her exceedingly.

The reference to the "Elders of the Oghgul race" was threefold - in having consulted the Elders (wise ones of the people) he established:

After driving away the Picts, the other Celtic tribes were eventually driven to the northern, western and southwestern extremities where some Celtic languages (Welsh, Scots Gaelic) still survive. The Celtic Saxon lineage eventually established:

451 CE - The Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon put to the vote as to whether or not Christ is both "truly man and truly God." Monophysitism, an outgrowth of the Alexandrian school, whose followers believed that Christ had only a single divine nature, was challenging the traditional belief of Jesus as having both a divine and human nature. The council rejected Monophysitism and established the Chalcedonian Definition, which affirmed that Christ had two natures that were "...without confusion, without change, without division, without separation." This produced another seperation of states as:

One of the minor articles brought to the attention of The Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon was that the ordination of young women was at this time becoming common practice. One of the least known Canons decided on by the Council was Canon #15 (1), which revised the age at which a woman was to hold office as "No woman under 40 years of age is to be ordained a deacon, and then only after close scrutiny."

455 CE - Britain - Hengest and Horsa fought with Wurtgern the king on the spot that is called Aylesford. His brother Horsa was slain there, Hengest then took the kingdom with his son Esc.

457 CE - Britain - Hengest and Esc fought with the Britons on the spot that is called Crayford, and slew four thousand men. The Britons then forsook the land of Kent, and in great consternation fled to London.

465 CE - Britain - Hengest and Esc fought with the Welsh near Wippedfleet and killed twelve leaders, all Welsh. On their side a thane was there slain, whose name was Wipped.

476 CE - The Western Roman Empire falls to barbarian armies, leaving the church as the primary authority in the West. In the East, the Byzantine Empire based in Constantinople continues for the next 977 years.

488 CE - Britain; Glastonbury - St. Bridget comes to Glastonbury, Britain from Ireland.

494 CE - Pope Gelasius I set St. Valentine's Day as February 14th.

500 CE

500 CE - Incense introduced in Christian church services and the first plans of Vatican are made.

500 CE - North America - Patayan (Yuman) Culture is established.

506 CE - France - The Council of Agde condemned vampires, poisoners and sorcerers. Agde is in the Languedoc region, which was once a center of the Arian heresy, whereas the Priscillian heresy had also taken deep root in Aquitaine and Languedoc.

525 CE - Rome - A Scythian Christian scholar, Dionysius Exiguus, was abbot of a monastery in Rome who wrote the Cyclus Paschalis, which fixed the birth of Jesus as the 23rd of December in 1 CE.

527 CE - Byzantine - The reign of Justinian begins, he is responsible for the codification of Roman Law that affects many future civilizations and is responsible for the re-conquest of Africa and Italy.

529 CE - Italy - Benedict establishes a monastery on Monte Cassino, it is his Benedictine order which eventually establishes the Western monastic tradition that spread rapidly throughout Europe.

532 CE - Byzantine - Emperor Justinian (-483 - 565) builds the Church of Hagia Sofia (Divine Wisdom) in Constantinople as the focal point of Byzantine Christianity, it is declared the largest Christian church in the world.

541 CE- France - The Council of Orleans condemned divination. The Council of Narbonne went much further. There were still traces of Arian thought and Priscillian's neo-Manichaeism in the Languedoc region. In 589 CE this Council excommunicated sorcerers, and decreed public whippings for those who were led astray by incubi and succubi. The Christian Church was already concerned that evildoers were having sexual relations with the Devil. The Arians were definitely a Christian sect. However, they dissented from the True Church by arguing that Jesus was simply a man of flesh and blood in whom the Spirit of God dwelt. They incurred the wrath of orthodox Christians by denying the divinity of Jesus.

550 CE- Britain - Saint David takes Christianity to Wales.

550 CE
Taliesin (fair or radiant brow) is recorded as being the son of Henwg of Caerlleon upon Usk, and resident bard of the courts of King Gwyddno Garanhir of the Welsh Lowland Hundred, of King Uriens of Wales and of King Arthur of Caerlleon. He is commemorated as writing many of the poems within the Mabinogion.

552 CE- Japan - Buddhism is introduced to Nippon's people.

553 CE
The Second Council of Constantinople, of which only six Western bishops attended, was convened by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I to settle the dispute known as the Three Chapters. Justinian had issued a declaration imperial edict of faith that the council approved which censured Vigilius. This was an attempt to reconcile moderate Monophysites to Orthodox Christianity. The Pope was later forced to ratify the council's work the following year, since the western churches were slow in recognizing the authority of the ecumenical council.

560 CE - Ireland - the pagan rite of Feis Temro (the Feast of Tara), is held by Diarmait mac Cerbaill and celebrated as the rite of the divine nature of the kingship of Tara (Ireland). The feis was symbolized as the symbolic marriage of a king and land and was practice continued as a form of inauguration of kings far into the late medieval period.

562 CE - Japan and Korea - End of Nippon's power in Korea.

563 CE - Iono (Island off of Scotland) - The Irish monk Saint Columba founds a monastery on the island and begins the conversion of the Picts to Christianity.

570 CE - Mohammad was born in Mecca.

587 CE - Spain - Visigoths converted to Christianity.

589 CE - Italy - Lombards converted to Christianity.

590 to 604 CE - Rome - Pope Gregory the Great (c. 540 - 604) begins the reform of adding the partaking of the Eucharist to public worship and changes in church administration, enhancing both the power and prestige of the papacy. He was originally Benedictine, having derived his concepts of theology from Ambrose of Milan. Though his concepts of purgatory and penance often served to widen the growing theological gulf between the Eastern and Western Churches, his fusing of the Roman papacy with Benedictine monasticism established a new religious policy for most of Western Europe. He establishes the Latin Church, which served to counteract the subordination of the Roman popes to the Eastern Emperors. He is also known for having commanded that the singing of the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos (presently known as Gregorian Chant) were to be collected and preserved. He eventually became known as the "Church Father" or "St. Gregory the Great."

596 CE - Britain - Pope Gregory sends Augustine of Canterbury to England (d. 605) on a missionary journey to spread the message of Christianity.

597 CE - Britain - Augustine visits England and converts the kingdom of Kent to Christianity.

600 CE

600 to 100 CE- Africa - Bantu migration extends to southern Africa; Bantu languages predominate in central and southern Africa. Emergence of southeastern African societies, to become the stone city-states of:

Which flourish through the1600's.

602 CE - Britain - Laws of Aethelberht are the earliest Anglo-Saxon code of law.

609 CE - Rome - All Saints' Day (a.k.a. All Hallows' Day) is first celebrated on May 13th when Pope Boniface IV dedicated the Pantheon in Rome to the Virgin Mary.

620 CE - China - Manichaeanism spread eastward over the Silk Road and penetrated into China. The Denawar expression of Manichaeanism, which developed in these eastern lands along the Silk Road, was being called T'i-na-pa in China. The Vegan philosophy of Mani was expanding throughout Europe while Roman Christianity was establishing forms of persecution, torture and propaganda in order to destroy it.

624 CE - Japan - Buddhism becomes the established religion.

625 CE - Mohammad begins oration of the Koran.

625 to 638 CE - Honorious I, showed great interest in the church in Spain and the British Isles and devoted a great deal of time to reform the education of the clergy. He became involved in Monotheletism, the doctrine declaring that Christ had two natures but operated with one will, which opposed the intent of the Council of Chalcedon.

628 CE - Mohammed captures Mecca and writes to rulers of the world explaining Islam.

632 CE - Death of the Islamic prophet, "Mohammed."

632 CE - Britain - East Anglia is considered Christianized.

635 CE - Muslims begin conquest of Persia and Syria.

635 CE - Britain - The Christianization of Wessex has begun.

638 CE - Muslims, who would eventually control the entire Middle East, northern Africa, and Spain, conquer Jerusalem. The loss of the "Ancient Sees" of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria contribute to isolating Rome and Constantinople as the two most important ecclesiastical centers.

640 CE - Egypt - Library of Alexandria, "The Center of Western Culture," with 300,000 ancient papyrus scrolls, is completely destroyed.

661 CE - Omayyad Dynasty begins in Islam.

664 CE - Britain (Northumbria) - At the Synod of Whitby, Oswy abandons the Celtic-Christian Church and accepts the faith of the Latin Church of Rome. The Celtic-Christian Church begins its decline.

673 to 686 CE - Britain - The Dooms of Hlothhre and Eadric, Kings of the Kentishmen were recorded, which mentions the use of the terms 'Wit,' and 'Wittan,' in the linguistics of the Anglo-Saxon Language.

680 to 681 CE - The Third Council of Constantinople was convoked by Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV to deal with Monotheletism. The council was attended by more than 150 bishops from all over the known world, presided over by papal legates.

664 CE - Britain - The vestiges of pagan practices of Anglo-Saxon Shamanic-priests continued to bring fertility to livestock and humans even though England was considered nominally Christian. The Church Legislation denounced those who persisted in offering food and drink to images of pagan deities as well as towards any man who donned the skins of stags and bulls. Bishops and priests ensured prosperity and bounty by offering prayers to God for good harvests.

668 to 690 CE - Britain - In 668 Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote the first liturgical legislation requiring penance in Britain against specific forms of paganism in his Liber Poenitentialis. In Book XXXVII of the Liber Poenitentialis he writes, "If anyone at the Kalends of January goeth about as a stag of a bull-calf, that is, making himself into a wild animal, and dressing in the skins of a herd animal, and putting on the heads of beasts; those who in such wise transform themselves into the appearance of a wild animal, let them do penance for three years, because this is devilish." (Henricus Intitoris [Heirich Institorus] Kraemer) and Jacobus Sprenger [Johann Sprenger] later use the Liber Poenitentialis as part of the groundwork against witchcraft for the production of The Malleus Maleficarum, written in 1486 CE.).

672 to 735 CE - The Venerable Bede, a Christian scholar, first asserted in his book De Ratione Temporum that Easter was named after Eostre (a.k.a. Eastre). She was the Great Mother Goddess of the Saxon people in Northern Europe. Similar "Teutonic dawn goddess of fertility [were] known variously as Ostare, Ostara, Ostern, Eostra, Eostre, Eostur, Eastra, Eastur, Austron and Ausos."

687 CE - France and Belgium - Pepin of Heristal, a Merovingian ruler, unites the Frankish territories and builds the center of his kingdom in Belgium. He is succeeded by his son, Charles Martel, who creates an alliance with the Christian Church, allowing the Merovingian Dynasty (and Christianity) to expand into Germany. Pepin the Short succeeds his father, Charles Martel, and strengthens the convergence of Benedictine missionaries and Frankish expansion.  


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