Chapter VII: 1000  to 1 BCE

by Jesse Potter aka Elkin Vanaeon
 On this ninth day of August in the year of our Lord and Lady 2005 CE

1000 to 800 BCE - Africa - Bantu ("the people") migration spreads through sub-Saharan Africa (Africa south of the Sahara Desert), over some 2,000 years. Bantu, a linguistically related group of about 60 million people living in equatorial and southern Africa, probably originated in West Africa, migrating downward gradually into southern Africa. Early in their history, the Bantu split into two major linguistic branches-the Eastern and Western Bantu. The Eastern Bantu migrated through present-day Zimbabwe and Mozambique, down to South Africa. The Western Bantu moved into what are now Angola, Namibia, and northwestern Botswana. Today, among the Bantu language groups, the most widely spoken Bantu-derived language is Arab-influenced Swahili.

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1000-750 BCE - Eurasia - Nomads of the Eurasian Steppes in the Early Iron Age. The Scythian, Sauromatian, Sarmatian, Saka, and early Mongolian nomads inhabited the Eurasian steppes. The Proto-Celtic people of the Urnfield culture dominate much of Continental Europe, spreading out over northern Asia as far as the frontiers of China. Development of the deliberate smelting of iron is occurring in the Middle East and China at this time.

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1000 BCE - The earliest dating and religion of the Druids are dated to this period seen in the Languageof the Celts who where the first Indo-Eurasian and Sarmatian peoples who spread throughout Europe. The later dialects were spoken from:

As well as the Teachings and religious influences affecting other Cultures:

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900 BCE - Peoples speaking Goidelic arrive in Britain and Ireland, one group the Romans call the Pretani and the Irish called them the Cruithin (Picts).

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900 BCE - Zoroastor, known as Zarathushtra the Prophet, begins his teachings in what is later called Iran that spreads throughout the Middle East, Persia, and India. The Patriarchal Zoroasturian empires flourished until the time of the worship of Mithras and later Alexander the Great.

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900 BCE - Italy - The Etruscans emigrate from Lydia after an 18-year famine to establish the first Etruscan towns in Italy. King Atys of Lydia, who ruled the country opposite the Greek islands of Chios and Samos, commanded many of his subjects to emigrate to Smyrna. Under the leadership of Atys', son of Tyrsanus, they loaded their belongings onto ships and journeyed to the Italian Peninsula where they built their towns on hillside terraces enclosed with massive timbered walls.

Reference - The Origins of the Etruscans, R.S.P. Beekes, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie vanWetenschappen, Amsterdam, 2003 ISBN 90-6984-369-2

800 BCE - The Chaldeans recorded the movements of the sky and document the beginnings of western astrology. The twenty-two "moon stations" in the monthly lunar cycle becomes recognized in Babylonia, India and China.

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800 BCE - This is the "Second Period of Judaic religion" in which the original Pentateuch included several gods worshipped by the tribes of Israel, the "El" pantheon and what is later termed the god of the Tetragrameton. It is at this time that the Priests of the new god (whose name could not be spoken) turned away from goddess-worship to a patriarchal religion centered on the jealous god Yhwh, thus removing the Goddess Asherah (Astarte, Innana or Ishtar) from the Temple of Jerusalem. It is recorded that within her Sanctuary, a tree trunk with chopped off branches was erected in celebration of fertility rites. This trunk or Pole symbolized the god El (representative of Tammuz). Celebrations resulting from her worship in this period result in the later "Dances of Spring" (Maypole Dance) in northern Europe and the Syrian dances of "The Tree of Life", "The Wedding Dance", "Giving Birth", "Separation", "Descent to the Netherworld", "Battle", and Death and Resurrection."

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753 to 509 BCE - Rome - Romulus builds the walled settlement to which he later became King.

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700 BCE - Scythians control the north and south shores of the Black Sea. The Greek trading communities are forced to pay tribute to continue their status to the Scythians. The Scythians who have pursued the Cimmerians push them all the way to Assyria.

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700 BCE - Jordanian City of Petra is carved out of sandstone by an unknown Aramaic culture, which would later be associated by some with the Nazoreans.

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680 BCE - Greece - The Greek goddess Artemis (Latin Diana; Etruscan - Artumes) begins to be worshipped as the daughter of Zeus and Leto. She is the twin of the god Apollo, having been born before him she is said to have helped deliver him. Over time, she is worshipped by both Greek and Roman as Artemis, Diana, and Jana. Though she has temples built for her, she is often found in the sacred groves where trees stand enduring of time, strong, and erect in age, with foliage neither shorn nor pierced by any suns. She is seen in her aspects of a Triple Goddess in being:

She is also identified as a Cthonic Goddess of:

Her worship is said to have originated from the Isle of Aretias, which is now the Isle off of Gersun (Giresun, Turkey: Island of Giresun Adasi; Aretias Island). It is the only island of the Black Sea across from Scythia and is presently called the "Island of Giresun" it is 2km off the coast with a surface area of 35km. The Island is now a national park commemorated as the site sacred to the ancient Themiscyran Amazons and for the Hamza Stone (a large sphere of igneous rock carried from the Kaukasus Mountains). The Hamza Stone was the place of worship by the women of Artemis (Children of the Moon) and by the women of Kybele (Cybele), the Great Mother Goddess of Anatolia. It still has the remains of the ancient temple where death and rebirth rituals, which involved the sacrificing of bulls and horses, were carried out as well as an ancient fortress and watchtower that predates the Ottoman Empire in Gersun.

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621 BCE - Greece - The Athenian lawgiver Draco issues the Draconian code of Laws, which make nearly every offense punishable by death.

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612 BCE - Greece - Sapho (the Greek lyric poet of Lesbos), is born. She is famous for her poetry that explored female sexuality, female values, and love in ancient Greece. She is later inscribed in the "Palatine Anthology" among the muses around 200 BCE.

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605 to 586 BCE - Babylon - Nebuchadnezzar laid waste to Judah, and brought 10,000 wealthy Jews to captivity between 556 and 539 BCE.

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600 BCE to 1800 CE - The Sauromatian and Sarmatian tribes were peoples forced to live nomadic lifestyle due to a poor climactic conditions causing a deteriorating steppe ecology. This resulted in many different tribes contacting peoples of other civilizations and merging cultural concepts such as burial practices by the earthen burial mound people of the Kurgans and the use of specialized weaponry by the Scytho-Sarmatian people.

Present day archeological information gathered from many of the earth-mound burial sites established that Women among the Sauromatian and Early Sarmatian (Early Nomadic) tribes were also Women Warriors and Warrior Priestesses, who were called "Oiorpata" ('Oior 'means 'man' and 'pata' means 'to kill'), which meant in Scythian "man-killers." In 680 BCE, these nomadic tribes later influence the directions of matrilineal attitudes of various races of India and Indonesia, such as the early matrilineal societies that inhabited India who worshipped Uma, "the Lady of the Mountains." Uma is still revered in these regions as Ambika, Annapurna, Bhairavi, Candi, Gauri, Durga, Jagadmatai means "Mother of the World", Kali, Kanyakumari, Kumari, Mahadevi, Parvati, Syama or Shiva's consort, she is usually represented at his side in Indian sculpture. The Worshippers of "Uma" are called the "Uma-soona", which means "Uma's Children." Within the histories of many civilizations are the references of the women warriors of Ulm dated from Alexander the Great to as late as the 18th century spanning over a thousand years.

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600 BCE - Ireland - Gaelic (Goidelic) speaking Celts from Spain arrive in Ireland. The various Celtic Cultures have now extended to Ankara, Budapest, Belgrade, Verona, Milan, Geneva, Paris, Orleans, Tara, Spain, Britain, Scotland, Holland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, and Czechoslovakia.

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600 BC - Greece -The Sanctuary of Athena is built in Delphi, Marmaria. The site was a Mycenaean village from 1500 to 1100 BCE and was originally dedicated to the worship of an Earth Goddess, the shrine was eventually occupied by Olympian deities, Athena. She is the daughter of Zues and known as Athena Ergane (patron of labor, arts, sciences, and the works of women), Athena Zosteria (warrior girded for battle) and Zeus Polieus (protector of the city).

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600 BCE - Greece - The Temple of Hera was built in Olympia. Hera's main sanctuary was at Argos in the Peloponnesus, and in the town of Heraia, her other temples stood in Olympia, Mycene, Sparta, Paestum (temples I and II), Corinth, Tiryns, Perachora, and on the islands of Samos and Delos. She is a daughter of Cronus and Rhea and wife and sister of Zeus. Hera was mainly worshipped as a goddess of marriage and birth. It is said that each year Hera's virginity returns by bathing in the well Canathus. The children of Hera and Zeus are hephaestus (the smith-god), Hebe (the goddess of youth) and Ares (the god of war).

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600 BCE - China - Birth of the Tao; Lao Tzu is attributed with the writing of the "Tao-Te Ching,:"

Lao Tzu was an honorific name meaning "Old Master." Lao-Tzu's refused to set his ideas down in writing, wanting his philosophy to remain a natural way to live life with goodness, serenity and respect without any rigid code of behavior. The eventual recorded writings of his wisdom is the "Tao-Te Ching." He believed instinct and conscience should govern a person's conduct and encouraged his followers to observe and believe that:

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589 BCE - Nebuchadnezzar sent his entire army against Jerusalem and besieged it for about a year and a half, causing a great famine in the city. The Babylonians finally broke through Jerusalem's walls in 587 BCE. Jerusalem, the temple, the palace, and its walls were destroyed. The inhabitants of the city, as well as the people and troops who had changed their allegiance to the king of Babylon were taken captive in a third deportation.

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580 BCE - Heraion - Greek temple of Hera the Queen of Heaven on the island of Samos is built.

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570 to 560 BCE - Italy -The Temple of Apollo was built in Syracuse. Apollo was the son of the Zeus and Leto, and the twin brother of Artemis. He was the god of order, harmony, and civilization. He is associated with the cultivated arts of music and medicine.

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561 BCE - Greece - The Athenian statesman Solon established the "Laws of Solon", which repealed Draconian Law except for homicide.

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554 to 533 BCE - Greece - Records of Pythagoreans using the Pentagram as a sign of recognition (Iambl., Vita Pyth. XXXIII), calling the Pentagram "Hugieia," which is translated as "Health", "Quickening" (Youthful Vitality), and was usually given as a "Divine Blessing." Hugieia comes from the same Indo-European root as "quick", "viva," "vital," "bios", "zōź" and "azoth." It has been t associated with "vigor", "vigil" and the Latin words "vegetus" (lively, vigorous) and "vegeo" (to quicken), which come from the same Indo-European root as "Wicca" and "Witch."

By 1493-1541 CE, "Hugieia" was still associated with the Pentagram by the Pythagoreans who used it as their greeting or password of "Be Sound, Whole, or Blessed!" (Hugiaine!).

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550 BCE - Italy - The Temples of Hera I and II were built in Paestum.

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550 to 540 BCE - Italy - Temple E, (Hera) was built in Selinus. The Temple of Juno Lacinia was built in Acragas. The Roman goddess Juno, who was personified at her Gate (known as the Janua Coeli or "Gate of Heaven") with two faces looking at the passage of the Gate of birth and opposite to the passage of the Gate of death. This Temple was also used to worship the Roman god Janus (from the Latin ianua), who is the masculine form of Diana, which would be Dianus or Ianus (Janus). He was the keeper of keys, the "protector" of gates and doorways and was responsible for opening and closing the gates of heaven every morning and evening. He also had the title Consivius or "sower", because of his role as the creator of agriculture.

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Further References to Gate of Heaven - Hebrew

540 BCE - Italy - The Temple of Diana was built on Janiculan hill in Rome.

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539 BCE - Persia becomes a world power under Cyrus the Great of Persia. The Persian religion of the time was Zoroastrianism and Mithra was it's new Prophet or God-mediator. Christianity owes many features to Iran (Persia as well as those inherited from Judaism). Among others are probably the belief in guardian angels, resurrection and in the heavenly journey of the soul."

530 BCE - The Saka Peoples, appear northeast of Iran as mounted nomads. Cyrus failed to subdue (and was killed) by the Massagetae beyond the Oxus in 530 BC." The Kalachakra initiation is never performed in the Northeast Sector of a community.

525 BCE - Italy - Temple of Athena was built in Paestum.

525 to 332 BCE - Egypt - Late Dynastic Perod: Dynasties XXVII-XXXI:

Egypt does not see another Egyptian as ruler until 1952 CE.

509 to 31 BCE - Rome - Tarquinius Superbus is overthrown and the Republic of Rome is changed to a Republican system of government, designed to prevent a tyrant ever ruling Rome again. Executive power was entrusted to two annually elected officials (consuls); their advisory council, the Senate, which was an ex-officio body of magistrates, provided the necessary elements of experience and continuity.

500 to 200 BCE - Nigeria - The Ancient Nok culture thrives in forests of central Nigeria till 200CE. Claimed by the Yoruba peoples as ancestors, the Nok are revered for their art and terra cottas.

500 BCE - Tibet - Primitive Bon was introduced with the mass migration of Iranians from Sogdhiana, bringing polytheistic Mithraism, Aramaic alphabet of Aramaiti, the Iranian Earth Goddess." Early Shamanistic Bon in Tibet is recorded before the later Yunglung Bon of Mani which is introduced much later. "Herodotus adds that the Argippaie, north of the Scythians were virtuous, vegetarian peacemakers who have no warfare or weapons."

500 BCE - Greece - The Temple of Zeus was built in Olympia, the Temple of Apollo was built in Corinth, and the Temple of Aphaia was built in Aegina.

500 BCE - Ireland - The Danu Celtic tribes from central and western parts of mainland Europe (Iron-culture farmers and warriors) arrive in Ireland. They become the people of the Tuatha de Danann who have no fear of dying in battle and eventually become the dominant people of Ireland.

500 BCE - India - Buddha; The word Buddha ("One who is awake", is a title given to Siddharta Gautama, in northern India. Siddartha Gautama was the son of the Rajah (ruler) of the Sakya tribe of Kapilavastu, Nepal. When about 35 years old he left the luxuries of his father's court, his beautiful wife, and all earthly ambitions for the life of an ascetic. He saw contemplation as the way to self-enlightenment. He tried the traditional means of contemplation and asceticism, for six years, to discover the reason of man's "clinging to life." He taught the principles of his teaching, gaining many disciples and followers for the next 40 years, till he died at the age of about 80 in Kusinagara, Oudh. According to tradition, he sat under a bodhi tree through the night until a glimpse of the morning star provoked a "supreme awakening." Of the Four Truths of Buddha's teaching, the last affirms the path leading to deliverance from suffering. To reach Nirvana to "the blowing out" of the fires of all desires, and the absorption of the self into the infinite.

450 BCE - Torah (Mosaic Law) is compiled from E, J, P and D sources in Babylon

440 to 430 BCE - Greece - The Temple of Poseidon was built in Sunium.

430 BCE - Greece and Italy - Piraeus is struck by a deadly epidemic, which does not affect the Peloponnese, but the Spartans kill everyone lest they catch the disease. It later rages in the settlement of Rome and by 429 BCE the Plague kills at least one-third the population of Athens. The historian Thucydides later wrote, "The people indulged in drunkenness, gluttony, and licentiousness as citizens lost fear of the gods and respect for law. As for the first time they judged it to be just the same whether they worshipped them (the gods) or not, as they saw all alike perishing; and as for the latter, no one expected to live to be brought to trial for his offenses."

It is during this time period that Hippocrates the Great is quoted as being the first physician to state that no disease is entirely miraculous or adventitious in origin and that disease is not sent as punishment by the gods. He uses dissection and vivisection of animals to study anatomy and physiology. Hippocrates adds to medical terminology such words as chronic, crisis, convalescence, exacerbate, paroxysm, relapse, and resolution (fever expresses the struggle of the body to cure itself).

420 to 410 BCE - Greece - The Temple of Apollo was built in Bassae.

420 BCE - Greece - The Temple of Athena was built in Athens.

400 BCE - Jerusalem - A Jar handle with the seal impression of a pentagram (Jerusalem) is dated to the 4th Century BCE. The Hebrew letters YRSLM were found inscribed on the City Gates of Jerusalem, the Seal of Jerusalem, and is referenced to the Pentagram with Star of Jesse, the Shield and Star of David, and the Star of Solomon.

390 BCE - Rome - The Gauls defeat the Romans at the Battle of the Allia and Rome is besieged until only the Capitol is unconquered. They demand a ransom to leave the Romans alone. Brennus, leader of the Gauls demands his weight in gold and when the Romans complain he throws his sword on the scales to be weighed as well with the cry "VAE VICTUS" - (Woe to the Vanquished). After the sack of Rome by the Gauls, Rome must deal with unrest and revolt by former enemies and allies, including the Etruria, the Aequi, the Volsci, the Latins, and the Hernici.

370 to 340 BCE - Greece - Areta of Cyrena was the daughter of Aristippus who had founded the Cyrenaic School of philosophy. She was elected to succeed her father as head of his school, where for thirty-five years she taught the natural sciences, moral philosophy and ethics in Attica. The epitaph on her tomb dubbed her "the splendor of Greece" with "the beauty of Helen, the virtue of Thirma, the pen of Aristippus, the soul of Socrates, and the tongue of Homer."

350 BCE - France - The Later Greek Historian Timaeus makes earliest known reference to Druids in France at this time.

331 BCE - Egypt - Alexander is declared the Son of God at oracle of Amun in Siwa, Egypt. Slightly significant to Essenes because of their connection to Amun, or Aumen (Essenes on Carmel are called the children of Aumen, or Beni-Amin in Mandaen writings.)

332 BCE to 30 CE - Macedonia and Egypt - The Macedonian Ptolmic Period.

276 BCE - Gaul - Galatia had been settled by the Celts - "The name Galatians was given to the Celtic people due to their originally having settled in Gaul before their migration to Asia Minor." The Celts in Gaul and the British Isles lived in grass huts and bred cattle while preserving the Old Religion. They celebrated the Old Religion with wild processions on horseback, song, chants and feasts. Ritual bonfires (need-fires) are lit on the mountaintops. The existence of the Galatians is asserted by Diogenes Laertius who quoted, "The Celtic race, which embrace the Gaul's, old Britons, the Picts, Scots, the Welsh, Irish and numerous emigrants in all the large cities of Great Britain and the United States, appear in history several hundred years before Christ, as the wave of the vast Aryan migration from Asia. [ff. keltoivor Kevltai, Celtae, Galavtai, Galatae or Galati, Galli, Gael. Some derive it from Celt, a cover, shelter; others from celu (Lat. celo) to conceal. Herodotus first mentions them, as dwelling in the extreme northwest of Europe... The Galatians in Asia Minor, to whom Paul addressed his epistle, were a branch of the Celtic race.

It was within this time-period that the Druid priesthood met in a place called 'Drunemeton' and created the Council of 300, who sat as judges among the Galatian Celts! (Nemeton means sacred place)

250 BCE - Mithra became the favorite deity and Mithraism spread into Armenia and later into Asia Minor after the division of the empire of Alexander. From 250-100 BCE the Mithraic system of ritual and doctrine took the form which it afterward retained. ....In theory, ritual, and practice Mithraism was syncretistic and where it could not supplant other religious doctrines, it assimilated or adopted them"

225 BCE - Classical writers portray the Celts as a dramatic looking people, quite different in appearance than any of the Mediterranean people:

200 BCE - Cybele, (Phrygian fertility goddess), was being worshipped on what was to later be known as Vatican hill, she was associated with her lover, Attis (the older Tammuz, Osiris, Dionysus, or Orpheus). He was the god of ever-reviving vegetation. Born of a virgin, he died and was reborn annually.

200 BCE - The yecer ha-ra', translated as the 'evil impulse', is adopted by the Jewish clergy as the reason for man's fall or desire for what was considered dark impulses, which God had implanted in the unconscious heart of each individual, at his birth or conception. Later Christians changed the yecer to become the corrupting influence known as 'concupiscence', which each human being inherited at birth and was transmitted through sexual intercourse. This was accompanied by the 'libid'', which infected man and was only released through baptism and other forms of purification.

200 to 120 BCE - The Gundestrup cauldron is created at this time. It is 70 cm in diameter and beaten out of 10 kg of silver, constructed from 13 heavily decorated rectangular panels and a plain bowl containing a 14th circular one. It was dismantled around 30 CE and left in a bog near what is now the hamlet of Gundestrup in Northern Jutland, where it gradually became overgrown and covered with peat. It remained there until its discovery by peat cutters in 1891. There are eight external panels and five interior panels, one of which depicts Cernunnos sitting cross-legged wearing antlers with seven tines and surrounded by animals. The relief shows the same characteristics as the stone mask of Pashupati, the Lord of the Animals dated to 2000 BCE and found in found in Mohenjo Daro (the NorthWest of modern India on the River Indus).

175 to 164 BCE - Manalaus was made High Priest for the Jewish peoples. Through him Greek influence became strong among until a rebellion was brought against him in 167 - 165 BCE by the Jewish priest Mattathias and his 5 sons, also known as the Macabees, who rebelled. They recaptured and rededicated the temple. Hanakkuh commemorates this today

168 BCE - Rome - Battle of Pydna - The Roman General Lucius Aemilius Paulus defeats Macedonian King Perseus, macedonians are captured at Pydna and sold as slaves in Rome with females fetching fifty times the price of a male.

100 BCE - What were to be described as the Germaenic Tribes had advanced into the central and southern areas of present-day Germany. There were three major tribal groups:

100 BCE - Hiding of the Dead Sea Scrolls by the Essenes - The conservative fraternity of the Essenes lived deliberately isolated from temple Jewry in a settlement that had been rebuilt after an earthquake, it was situated at Chirbet Qumran a mountainous region on the Dead Sea. The "Essenes" traced their origin to a "Teacher of Righteousness" from the time of the Maccabees, centuries before Christ. The Essenes are remembered for the writing of the Dead Sea Scrolls, which the community packed in jars and hid in nearby caves during a rebellion that had threatened them about 100 BCE. In I947 the scrolls were found by accident at the Wadi Qumran caves." Writers who wrote about this sect were:

30 BCE to 450 CE - Rome and Egypt during the Roman Period - Egypt came under Roman influence and was ruled by a prefect for Octavian, later known as Augustus Caesar, the first Roman Emperor in 27 BCE. The country was considered a "breadbasket" for centuries under a succession of emperors.

8 BCE - Greece - The initiatory institution in Greece at Eleusis taught both the Greater and Lesser Elusian Mysteries. The Mysteries of Demeter were celebrated every five years at Eleusis.

2 BCE - India - The Soma ritual is documented to the practice of using a hallucinogenic, the Soma deity still exists in present day Hindu religion. As the population spread and was variously subsumed by other cultures, they began to substitute other hallucinogenic plants, and the identity of Soma was lost for 2000 years.

2 BCE to 30 CE - Jerusalem - Jesus of Nazareth - the time of the prophetic birth of a young man who was later worshiped as the Christ, the "Son of God" or "The Messiah," after being tortured and put to death by the Romans at the request of the "Jewish Sanhedrin." He was revered for his supernatural abilities, "Enabled by God," to:

Upon his death the Christian cults and sects that developed later condemned and punished the Jewish peoples. The very Roman Empire that had put Jesus to death grew weak and in having lost power, chose the spiritual path of civilizing and conquering peoples and territories while still procuring lands and wealth. The monarchies (Constantine and later religious rulers) began governing over religious councils as time passed, which later developed into the Roman Catholic Church. Simply putting it, the 'God of Christianity' was patented and copyrighted and so was the Church. Beliefs in any other spiritual growth were discouraged and people not converting to Christianity were later persecuted and condemned. Anyone claiming the ability to heal or display possible supernatural abilities, especially during the "Dark Ages", was investigated, tortured, and put to death as heretics and witches! 

 


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