Chapter XVII: 1980 to 1999 CE

by Jesse Potter aka Elkin Vanaeon
 On this ninth day of August in the year of our Lord and Lady 2005 CE

1980 CE - The Ausar Auset Society was formed by R.A. Straughn, known by his religious name, Ra Un Nefer Amen, a member during the 1970s of the Rosicrucian Anthroposophic League. A black man, Straughn became an occult teacher to the black community and around 1980 established an independent organization which applied the universal occult truths of Rosicrucianism to the Afro-American situation. Straughn has written several occult texts: The Realization of Neter Nu, Health Teachings of the Ageless Wisdom, and Meditation Techniques of the Kabalist, Vedantins and Taoists. Other books manifest the particular interest in the needs of black Americans: Black Woman's, Black Man's Guide to Spiritual Union and Black Woman, Black Man in a Quandary.

1980 CE - U.S. Census reports that Native American population exceeds 1 million (1,418,195).

1980 CE - The European countries of Spain (Three Kings), Italy (Befana), and Sweden (Tomte) have given way to the imagery of Santa Claus as the anticipated "Gift-bringer" of Christmas.

1980 CE - America - Scott Cunningham, born June 27, 1956 in Royal Oak, Michigan, died 1993 in San Diego California, began authoring more than 30 books and wrote scripts for occult videocassettes. He was initiated into several covens of various traditions but decided to practice as a solitary.  He lectured to groups around the country and occasionally made media appearances on behalf of the craft. His books included: Shadow of Love, (1980), Magical Herbalism (1982), Earth Power (1983), Cunningham's Encyclopedia of Magical Hers (1985), The Magic of Incense, Oils and Brews (1987), The Magical Household (1987), Cunningham's Encyclopedia of Crystal, Gem and Metal Magic (1987),  The Truth about Witchcraft (1988), Wicca: A Guide for the Solitary Practitioner (1988).

1980 CE - Legal Decision - the Supreme Court case of the "United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians", the case was decided on June 30,1980, in an 8-1 decision, the Supreme Court upheld the previous Court of Claims decision of 1979. Ruling that the Sioux Indians were entitled to the award totaling about $106 million ($17.5 million, plus 5% interest per year since 1877). Justice Harry Blackmun wrote:

"In sum, we conclude that... the terms of 1877 Act did not effect 'a mere change in the form of investment of Indian tribal property'. Rather, the 1877 Act effected a taking of tribal property, property which had been set aside for the exclusive occupation of the Sioux by the Ft. Laramie Treaty of 1868. That taking implied an obligation on the part of the Government to make just compensation to the Sioux Nation, and that obligation, including an award of interest, must now, at last, be paid."

1981 CE - US - President Reagan cuts 40% of funds for Indian social programs.

1981 CE - January - Ronald Reagan becomes the first U.S. President opposed to a constitutional amendment providing equal rights for women. NOW organizes "ERA YES Inaugural Watch" where some 40,000 ERA supporters remind the new President of the overwhelming pro-ERA sentiments in the nation.

1981 CE - Janet and Stewart Farrar write "Eight Sabbats for Witches" in 1981, "The Witches Way" and "A Witches Bible Complete" in 1984.

1981 CE - Mexico - A mob stones to death a woman suspected of witchcraft.

1981 CE - U.S Legal Decision - U.S. Const. amend. I clause." Schmidt v. Bishop, 779 F. Supp. 321, 331 (S.D.N.Y. 1991) (citing U.S. Const. amend. I). The First Amendment has two distinct but complementary protections for religious liberty:

The Establishment Clause - prohibits governmental intrusion or entanglement into religious matters.

The Free Exercise Clause - guarantees that each individual may practice his or her faith freely, without governmental intrusion or scrutiny.

1981 CE - U.S Legal Decision - Public Health Trust of Dade County v. Wons, 541 So. 2d 96 (Fla. 1989), the government wanted to force a mother to receive a necessary blood transfusion even though such a procedure was contrary to her religious beliefs. The government argued it had an interest in protecting the rights of the mother's children who could be orphaned if the mother was not required to take the transfusion. This Court noted:

1982 CE - Zionists Change the Law of Return

1982 CE - U.S. Legal Decision - Roberts v. Ravenwood Church of Wicca, (249 Ga. 348) in 1982. It was similar to Dettmer v Landon, below. The District Court of Virginia declared in 1985 (Dettmer v Landon, 617 F Suup 592 [E. Dst. Va.]) that Wicca is "clearly a religion for First Amendment purposes....Members of the Church sincerely adhere to a fairly complex set of doctrines relating to the spiritual aspect of their lives, and in doing so they have 'ultimate concerns' in much the same way as followers of more accepted religions. Their ceremonies and leadership structure, their rather elaborate set of articulated doctrine, their belief in the concept of another world, and their broad concern for improving the quality of life for others gives them at least some facial similarity to other more widely recognized religions."

Judge J. Butzner of the Fourth Circuit Federal Appeals Court confirmed the Dettmer v Landon decision (799F 2nd 929) in 1986. He stated, "We agree with the District Court that the doctrine taught by the Church of Wicca is a religion." In 1983 a case was brought before the U.S. District Court in Michigan (Butzner J. 1986 Fourth Circuit). The court ruled that three employees of a prison had restricted an inmate in the performance of his Wiccan rituals. This "deprived him of his First Amendment right to freely exercise his religion and his Fourteenth Amendment right to equal protection of the laws."

1983 CE - The Arab government of northern Sudan instituted strict Islamic law in the entire country and included black Christians and other non-Muslims of the south in its decree.

1984 CE - Reagan forms Commission on Indian Reservation Economies, which recommended shift away from tribal goals and the waiving of tribal immunity from certain lawsuits.

1985 CE - "The Temple of Understanding" collaborated with the global Commission of Parliamentarian leaders in early 1985 and gave birth to the Global Forum. The result was the beginning of worldwide conferences with an interfaith movement geared to 'global responsibility'

1985 CE - The Mayor of the City of Darmstadt, Guenther Metzger, told the Central Council of the German Sinti and Roma that the demand for their "Request of Recognition" insult[ed] the honor of the memory of the Holocaust victims by aspiring to be associated with them."

1985 CE - US - Senator Jesse Helms (R-NC) sponsored S.AMDT.705 on 1985-SEP-26. This was an amendment to H.R. 3036, an appropriations bill to fund various federal government agencies in relation to 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, No funds appropriated under this Act shall be used to grant, maintain, or allow tax exemption to any cult, organization, or other group that has as a purpose, or that has any interest in, the promoting of satanism or witchcraft: Provided, That for the purposes of this section, "satanism" is defined as the worship of Satan or the powers of evil and "witchcraft" is defined as the use of powers derived from evil spirits, the use of sorcery, or the use of supernatural powers with malicious intent. Congress turned down the Bill due to its First Amendment bias!

1985 CE - US Native American - The National Tribal Chairman's Association voted to reject proposals set forth by the Reagan Commission due to fear of an attempt to terminate tribal sovereign status.

1987 CE - India - Ergot Poisoning, (Trichothecene) occurred in Kashmir, India, and was attributed to the consumption of bread made from moldy flour. The major symptom was abdominal pain together with inflammation of the throat, diarrhoca, bloody stools and vomiting. T-2 toxin was isolated from the flour together with other trichothecenes, namely deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and deoxynivalenol monoacetate.

1987 CE - America - Judith, Anodea (born on December 1, 1952 in Elyria, Ohio) wrote the book "Wheels of Life", and later "The Sevenfold Journey (1993)", Easter Body, and Western Mind in 1996. She was an American Witch, author, artist, songwriter and healer, renowned for being a past president of the Church of All Worlds (1986-93), founder of Lifeways, a school for the study of healing and magical arts, and a founding member of Forever Forests. She had a master's degree in clinical psychology from the Rosebridge Graduate School of Integrative Therapy in 1989 and a Ph.D. in health and human services from Columbia Pacific University in 1999. Marion Zimmer Bradley was goddess mother to her son and she was a member of Bradley's Aquarian Order of the Restoration and the Dark Moon Circle.

1987 CE - The Order of Nazorean Essenes founds small monastic center in northern Arizona and begins giving temporary vows and begins collecting and collating ancient Gnostic, Mandaic and Manichaean texts and teachings. Extensive attacks and slander campaigns from non-gnostic Christians begin.

1988 CE - "Mary Kilbourne Matossian linked the occurrence of ergotism with periods where there were high incidents of people persecuted for being witches. Emphasis was placed on the Salem Witch Trial, in Massachusetts, in 1692, where there was a sudden rise in the number of people accused of being witches, as well as times and locations in early European History. She also links the effect of contaminated diets on fertility, mortality, demographic depressions, witch persecution, and mental illness as the results of food poisoning, primarily from ergot, in Europe during the Middle Ages.

1988 CE - October 21 - Mission Statement of the Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions. The mission of the Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions is to cultivate harmony between the world's religious and spiritual communities and foster their engagement with the world and its other guiding institutions in order to achieve a peaceful, just, and sustainable world.

The Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions (CPWR) officially dates from 1988 when two monks from the Vivekananda Vedanta Society of Chicago suggested organizing a centennial celebration of the 1893 World's Parliament of Religions, held in Chicago in conjunction with the Colombian Exposition. The 1893 Parliament had marked the first formal gathering of representatives of eastern and western spiritual traditions.

1989, January 5-8 CE - Second International Congress on World Evangelization [Lausanne II] - "In 1989, Lausanne II, the second International Evangelism Conference convened by the International Lausanne Committee in Manila, Philippines, for inspiration and unity. Christian leaders from 150 nations were brought together and commissioned to take the "spirit of Lausanne" back to their nations - with renewed vigor - as the millennium drew to a close." Individuals who are members of virtually every Christian church and denomination in the world are involved in the Lausanne movement. It includes members of the mainline Protestant denominations that are a part of the World Evangelical Fellowship, such as Methodists, Presbyterians, Anglicans, Episcopalians, Baptists, Lutherans, Disciples of Christ, etc. It also includes members of more conservative churches that are a part of the World council of Churches, such as the Christian and Missionary Alliance, Pentecostals, Conservative Baptists, Independent churches, etc. There are many para-church organizations involved in the Lausanne movement, such as Campus Crusade for Christ. World Vision International, the World Bible Societies, African Enterprise, Youth with a Mission, Youth for Christ, InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, etc.

1990 CE - First pan-European Wiccan conference, held in Germany, was organized by Vivianne Crowley, author of "Wicca - The Old Religion in the New Age", and secretary of the Pagan Federation. The second Conference was held in Britain, third in Norway (1992), and fourth in Scotland (1993).

1990 CE - Formation of AD2000 & Beyond Movement CE - "Following Lausanne II, the Lord impressed upon American Church leaders to respond to the urgency of the 'Great Commission' and the task of evangelism in a new era. The Manila Conference, the AD2000 & Beyond Movement was formed in 1990. The AD2000 & Beyond Movement convened a national consultation in Phoenix, Arizona and introduced the concept of citywide strategies for the United States."

1990 CE - Nelson Mandela, long-time black political prisoner, is freed by Afrikaner President de Klerk in South Africa. Ethnic violence erupts between Zulu and Xhosa factions and bitter rivalries evident among South African black majority groups and white Nationalist groups.

1990 CE - U.S Legal Decision - Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872, 877, 110 S.Ct. 1595, 108 L.Ed. 2d 876 (1990). The US Supreme Court asserted that religious claims and claimants are no longer entitled to strict scrutiny when they attack laws that are neutral on their face and generally applicable. This establishes precedence when a law is neutral and generally applicable and would not preclude a strict scrutiny analysis of religious autonomy.

1990, August, CE - U.S. Bureau of the Census - Top 25 American Indian Tribes for the United States:

1990 Census 1980 Census






All American Indians















Sioux 1















Pueblo 2










Iroquois 3





Lumbee 4










Blackfoot 2





Canadian and Latin American...










Tohono O'Odham










Seminole 2















Alaskan Athabaskans















Paiute 2










Puget Sound Salish











1992 CE - Canberra Conference by Wiccan Leaders - "PERSECUTION: ANCIENT AND MODERN" was written by Julia Phillips and presented by Julia and Matthew Sandow at the Wiccan Conference, Canberra, September 1992,

1991 CE - Vivianne Crowley founded the Pan European Wicca Convention in 1991, which brings pagans together and brought Alexandrian Wicca to the Lowlands. Elsy Kloeg founded Aradia Centrum in Alkmaar (Northwest Netherlands). In 1993 the Alexandrian centre was handed over to Lady Bara, hereditary witch, who runs the centre in Zeist. There also Silver Circle, run by Merlin and Morgana, is located. The Alexandrian Greencraft was founded in Flanders in 90. The Greencraft is today the largest Wicca organisation in Belgium, with several covens, mostly in Antwerp. The grandfather of Greencraft tradition is Argchuicha.

1991 CE - The Kosovo Conflict was a series of struggles for independence during the 1990's in the area once covered by the country of Yugoslavia. Periods of conflicts were:

Each conflict was described as an 'ethnic conflict' between the Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, and Muslims. Though they shared common Slavic ethnic origins, they viewed themselves as distinct peoples due to different religious heritages.

Ethnic differences were due to differences between the Serbians and Albanians, who were descendants of the Illyrian tribes. Difference in race, language and religion were:

This was the result of widespread assaults, ethnic cleansing, rapes, murders, and forced evacuation of over 140, 000 ethnic Albanian civilians by the Serbian army and militia of Kosovo. Over 11,200 murders were reported to UN and NATO authorities, which resulted in the forces of NATO, USA, and Russia campaigning against the Serbian Government to end the conflict and re-establish civil authority. War crimes of genocide were brought against political and military leaders involved in the Kosovo Conflict who authorized the ethnic cleansing massacres!

1992 CE - The "Sudan Fatwa", was declared. It was a religious decree that gave theological justification to the extermination of non-Muslims. Gaspar Biro, special investigator for the United Nations, says the northern government publicly supported this. Abdullahi An-Naim, an expert in Islamic law from northern Sudan who now teaches at Emory University's law school in Atlanta, says: "To call it jihad does not make it jihad in Islamic terms." He says the use of the term doesn't meet either the classic military definition or the common usage of jihad, which for most Muslims means, "struggle or effort" on behalf of Allah, and has nothing to do with war. Christian Solidarity International, a Swiss-based organization that 21 years ago began to highlight the persecution of Christians in the former Soviet Union, focus on the Sudan, where it says it has bought and freed more than 1,400 slaves.

1993 CE - U.S. Legal Decision - Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v. City of Hialeah, 508 U.S. 520, 113 S.Ct. 2217, 124 L.Ed. 2d 472 (1993) (invalidating city ordinances which prevented Santeria followers from sacrificing animals; finding ordinances were not "neutral" and government lacked compelling interest). There, the United States Supreme Court stated that where a law is not neutral or not of general application, it must undergo the most "rigorous of scrutiny," stating:

1993 CE - U.S. Legal Decision - The Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, which was signed into effect by President Clinton in November 1993. The court's majority decision acknowledged Congress' right to legislate enforcement of a constitutional right to the free exercise of religion, yet it held Congress cannot make a substantive change to define what the right to free exercise means. The ruling also held RFRA violated the federal government's separation of powers.

Reasoning in the removal of the RFRA was due to state and city governments having complained about an extra burden caused by a variety of religious claims made by prisoners. "The First Amendment's Free Exercise Clause is there to protect all people's religious liberty, particularly those in a minority or vulnerable position." The court's decision to strike RFRA "diminished the free exercise religious rights of the 1.6 million Americans imprisoned in state and local prisons."

1993 CE - Parliament of the World's Religions, Chicago, U.S.A. In 1993, the Parliament of the World's Religions was convened in Chicago, with 8,000 people from all over the world coming together to celebrate diversity and harmony and to explore religious and spiritual responses to the critical issues which confront us all.

At the 1993 Parliament, an assembly of religious and spiritual leaders gave its assent to a groundbreaking document, "Towards a Global Ethic: An Initial Declaration". The declaration is a powerful statement of the ethical common ground shared by the world's religious and spiritual traditions.

1993 CE - The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (1993) was adopted at the World Conference on Human Rights. This reaffirmed the solemn commitment of all States to fulfil their obligations to promote universal respect for, and observance and protection of, all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, other instruments relating to human rights, and international law. The universal nature of these rights and freedoms is beyond question. Topics covered to be monitored and enforced are:

1993 CE - U.S. Legal Decision - UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAW 103-150, 103d Congress Joint Resolution 19, Nov. 23, 1993. To acknowledge the 100th anniversary of the January 17, 1893 overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, and to offer an apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii.

Whereas, it is proper and timely for the Congress on the occasion of the impending one hundredth anniversary of the event, to acknowledge the historic significance of the illegal overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, to express its deep regret to the Native Hawaiian people, and to support the reconciliation efforts of the State of Hawaii and the United Church of Christ with Native Hawaiians;

Now, therefore, be it resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,


The Congress -

  1. On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the illegal overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893, acknowledges the historical significance of this event, which resulted in the suppression of the inherent sovereignty of the Native Hawaiian people;
  2. Recognizes and commends efforts of reconciliation initiated by the State of Hawaii and the United Church of Christ with Native Hawaiians;
  3. Apologizes to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the people of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893 with the participation of agents and citizens of the United States, and the deprivation of the rights of Native Hawaiians to self-determination;
  4. Expresses its commitment to acknowledge the ramifications of the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, in order to provide a proper foundation for reconciliation between the United States and the Native Hawaiian people; and
  5. Urges the President of the United States to also acknowledge the ramifications of the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii and to support reconciliation efforts between the United States and the Native Hawaiian people.


As used in this Joint Resolution, the term "Native Hawaiians" means any individual who is a descendent of the aboriginal people who, prior to 1778, occupied and exercised sovereignty in the area that now constitutes the State of Hawaii.


Nothing in this Joint Resolution is intended to serve as a settlement of any claims against the United States.

Approved November 23, 1993


SENATE REPORTS: No. 103-125 (Select Comm. on Indian Affairs)


1994 CE - Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1994, Part A, (Public Law 103-382) established Federal legislation that provided direct financial support for the education of all American Indian and Native Alaskan students in public, tribal, as well as Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools.

1994 CE - The Hutus peoples massacre up to 1,000,00 Tutsis in Rwanda, then upon fearing reprisals from the new Tutsi government, more than a million Hutu refugees fled Rwanda in a panicked mass migration.

1995 CE - USA - In January the ERA Summit was attended by the national officers and board, the state presidents, members of the ERA Strategy committee and interested activists to discussed the issue and draft language for a new ERA. At the ERA Summit, NOW President, Patricia Ireland explained that to achieve true equality a paradigm shift was needed. Under the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment, using a male rather than human standard, the courts have been able to justify discrimination. Their goal of the summit was defined as the need to construct an amendment and develop a strategy that would end women's historic subordination to men and guarantee women full constitutional rights.

In July NOW members, voting in conference, resolved to proceed with an expanded constitutional amendment strategy that would eliminate discrimination based on sex, race, sexual orientation, marital status, ethnicity, national origin, color or indigence. Members also called for further study of age and disability as classes to be included in the struggle for constitutional equality.

1995 CE - The World Conference on Human Rights welcomes the World Conference on Women to be held in Beijing in 1995 and urges that human rights of women should play an important role in its deliberations. To be joined in accordance with the priority themes of the World Conference on Women of equality, development and peace.

1995 CE - China - the "Law on Maternal and Infant Health Care", which took effect June 1, 1995, required premarital checkups to determine whether those wishing to marry carried a "genetic diseases of a serious nature", infectious diseases such as AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, leprosy, or a "relevant mental disease." The law stipulated that if either partner carried such a disease then marriages would be only permitted after the couple had been sterilized.

1995 CE - U.S. Legal Decision - Military - United States v. Phillips, 42 M.J. 346, 349 (C.A.A.F. 1995) (quoting Army Chaplain's Handbook). In the case United States v. Phillips, (42 M.J. 346) in 1995). Establishment of a correct test was necessary in determining if there was an intent to punish or stigmatize a person awaiting disciplinary action, and if not, were the conditions in furtherance of a legitimate, non-punitive, government objective. The purposeful interference with a service-member's First Amendment Right was violated in his right to believe in a particular religion and to practice his religion, which resulted in necessary judicial intervention, due to illegal pretrial punishment requiring mandated relief of post-trial abuses. Statement of Judge Wiss's concurring opinion was:

"First, Wicca is a socially recognized religion, it is acknowledged as such by the Army." (See 'Dept. of the Army [DA] Pamphlet 165-13-1, Religious Requirements and Practices of Certain Selected Groups: A Handbook for Chaplains' [April 1980], revising A Pamphlet 165-13, "Religious Requirements and Practices of Certain Selected Groups.)

1995 CE - Amnesty International stated there is also an increasing trend for torture and ill treatment directed at common criminal suspects and social 'underdogs' such as immigrants and members of racial minorities. A report by the UN Redress Trust in 1995, found that 151 countries were involved in torture, inhuman or degrading treatment, despite the fact that 106 states have ratified, acceded to or signed the Convention Against Torture.

1995 CE - The Church of the Iron Oak vs The City of Palm Beach Florida. On December 1, Judge Anne Conway presided over case number 94-1043- CIV-ORL-22 at the United States District Court, Middle District of Florida, Orlando Division. The City of Palm Bay, Florida had cited Roger Coleman and Jacque Zaleski as "Ministers for the Church of the Iron Oak," for operating a church in a residence in a residential area without a variance. The City claimed the defendants were operating a church at a home (by having six festival celebrations per year in their back yard) despite the fact that all public church functions were held in Melbourne.

The defendants brought suit, October 11, 1994, against the City of Palm Bay, Florida in Federal Court requesting a temporary restraining order against the City, which was denied. In the preliminary proceedings, the City testified that weekly outdoor barbecues were allowed, but not if combined with worship. The City also stated that one worship activity per year was allowed in a Palm Bay residence. This alarmed the local Christian community resulting in fourteen Christian ministers responding to support the defendant, upon recognizing their own weekly home services were in greater violation of this interpretation. The Code Enforcement Board voted On November 21, to 'Not Charge' Iron Oak ministers Jacque Zaleski and Roger Coleman with a zoning violation.

1996 July 28, CE - Kennewick Man's skull is found in the Columbia River near Kennewick, Washington.

1996 CE - Canada - Census Table: Aboriginal identity population





American Indian

Total Indian Populations








Prince Edward Island




Nova Scotia




New Brunswick
























British Columbia




Yukon Territory




Northwest Territories




1996 to 1997 CE - Evidence submitted by dozens of aboriginal witnesses to crimes against humanity that murder, torture, sterilization, and other crimes against humanity were committed at church-run residential schools and hospitals across Canada. These were documented by Kevin Annett and native activists in public forums in Vancouver, Canada, which resulted in over 5,000 lawsuits brought against the churches and government by residential school survivors across Canada. Within documents, according to government statistics, more than 50,000 Indian children were recorded as having died in those facilities between 1891 and 1984 with a continual death rate of children between 35% and 60% in those schools.

1998 CE - On June 12-14, The first independent Tribunal into Canadian residential schools is convened in Vancouver by IHRAAM (International Human Rights Association of American Minorities), an affiliate of the United Nations. Evidence is submitted by dozens of aboriginal witnesses to crimes against humanity. The Tribunal concludes that the government of Canada and the Catholic, United and Anglican churches was guilty of complicity in Genocide, and recommended to the United Nations that a War Crimes investigation be held.

1997 CE - U.S. Legal Decision - Gibson v. Brewer, 952 S.W. 2d 239 (Mo. 1997), the Missouri Supreme Court refused to assert jurisdiction over claims of negligence, but did assert jurisdiction over intentional torts noting: "Religious conduct intended or certain to cause harm need not be tolerated under the First Amendment." The court dismissed the intentional tort because there was no allegation that the religious institution intended to harm the plaintiff. The court explained:

Intentional infliction of emotional distress requires not only intentional conduct, but conduct that is intended only to cause severe emotional harm. The Gibsons' allegations do not support the inference that the Diocese's sole purpose in its conduct was to invade the Gibsons' interest in freedom from emotional distress.

The U.S. Supreme Court in Cantwell v. Connecticut established that a simple assertion of an interest is not enough to make it compelling. The kind of interest should be "narrowly drawn to define and punish specific conduct as constituting a clear and present danger to a substantial interest of the state...." 310 U.S. 296, 311 (1940); see also West Virginia v. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624, 639 (1943). Any interest in providing a particular cause of action to the Petitioner does not rise to the level necessary to overcome the entanglement and effect on religious liberties found elsewhere in the case-law of the Supreme Court, such as laws against polygamy, illegal drug use, or tax evasion. Moreover, Petitioner has adequate remedies: claims for monetary damages against the individual who directly caused the alleged harm. Asserting jurisdiction over the claims against Respondents, therefore, is not compelling nor is it the least restrictive means for ascertaining this interest.

1997 CE - US Legal Decisions - the H.R. 119, NATIONAL DEFENSE AND AUTHORIZATION ACT, SEC. 1078. Previous to November 18, 1997, American Civilian populations could be and were used for biological or chemical experimentation, either by the Department of Defense or its contractors, providing advance notice only to "local civilian officials" (See Bibliography on Human Experimentation). The individual civilian did not have to be notified, much less required to give informed consent under the Department of Defense United States Code - Title 50, Chapter 32 at Section 1520, which originally read as follows:

1520. Use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents by Department of Defense; accounting to Congressional committees with respect to experiments and studies; notification of local civilian officials.

On November 6, 1997 the Senate, by a vote of 90-10, signed into law by President Clinton on November 18, 1997 the H.R. 119, NATIONAL DEFENSE AND AUTHORIZATION ACT, SEC. 1078. RESTRICTIONS ON THE USE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS FOR TESTING OF CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL AGENTS!

This established:

The REPEAL OF SUPERSEDED PROVISION OF LAW - Section 808 of the Department of Defense Appropriation Authorization Act, 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1520), is repealed.

1997 CE - U.S. Legal Decision - Agostini v. Felton, 117 S.Ct. 1997, 2015 (1997), the Court revised its "Lemon" test, by folding "excessive entanglement" into its effect analysis. In so doing, however, the Court specifically related its concern to governmental conduct that could inhibit religion, if the government should become, in the Court's words, "excessively entangled" in religious matters. More to the point, the Court has barred the exercise of regulatory jurisdiction into religious institutions based on a concern that such jurisdiction inevitably would entangle the courts in religious matters. Indeed, as in NLRB v. Catholic Bishop, supra, the Court was concerned that the very process of regulatory inquiry could violate the Constitution.

1998 CE - Canada -The Institutional Confinement & Sexual Sterilization Compensation Act was introduced in the Alberta Legislature by Justice Minister Jon Havelock. The legislation sets parameters for the amount and type of damages that a person may receive in compensation for sterilization under the Sexual Sterilization Act and wrongful confinement in Alberta provincial institutions from the late 1920s to the early 1970s. The Act also eliminates certain legal defenses such as time limitations that were available to the government of Alberta with regard to these claims.

1998 CE - Massive Witch-hunts directed at women are recorded in South Africa.

The gendering of the South African witch-hunts conformed to the earlier European witch-hunts, where traditionally women are accused of witchcraft. Many of the women labeled as witches requested police protection and according to Northern Province Premier Ngoako Ramatlhodi, "Those found most vulnerable were elderly women of whom the actions are taken without resistance." "That women most often are the victims of witch hunts stems from attitudes toward gender," wrote Nina Shapiro of "The Toronto Star."

1998 CE - The Pagan Federation (UK) National Conference, billed by its organizers as "The largest gathering of Pagans since the Romans built the Coliseum," was declared by participants to be a major success. More than 1700 Pagans from all over the United Kingdom and Europe descended upon Croydon, London, on the 22nd of November for a day of talks, music, workshops and general socializing.

1998 CE - Kumeyaay Border Task Force works with federal immigration officials to secure the rights of Baja, Mexico, Indians to freely visit and interact with Kumeyaay in the U.S. The tribe was divided by political boundaries at the end of the Mexican War.

1998 CE - U.S. Legal - Florida Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1998 was enacted. This Act essentially clarifies and establishes the test requiring a compelling state interest for governmental entanglement or burden on religion under Chapter 761, Religious Freedom, Title XLIV, Civil Rights!

1998 CE - U.S. Legal - Doe v. Evans, 718 So. 2d 286 (Fla. 4th DCA 1998), the Fourth District Court of Appeal concluded: "When a secular court interprets church law, policies, and practices it becomes excessively entangled in religion."

1988 CE - Rep. Frank Wolf sponsored the Freedom from Religious Persecution Act, which would create a White House office for reporting religious persecution worldwide, impose sanctions on governments that carry out religious persecution and improve asylum procedures. He called for passage of that legislation, saying it would reaffirm American commitment to protecting the right to worship for people worldwide. "This nation was founded by men and women who wanted nothing more than freedom to practice their faith without government opposition," Wolf said. "If we don't stand up for the religious rights of people around the world, who will?"

In October of 1998, "The International Religious Freedom Act of 1998" (IRFA) was adopted by a unanimous House and Senate.

1998 CE - Terminator genetic plant technology was created! Monsanto, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, was awarded U.S. Patent Number 5,723,765: Control of Plant Gene Expression. Although the patent is broad and covers many applications, crops were engineered to kill their own seeds in the second generation, thus making it impossible for farmers to save and replant seeds. The seeds at the time were not authorized in the United States, so they were sold to Third World Countries instead.

March 22nd1999 CE - USA- Legal decision - Crystal Seifferly v. Lincoln Park Public Schools, Cause No. 90-DV-60070-DT, United States District Court, Eastern District of Michigan, Southern Division, U.S. District Judge Gerald Rosen declared the terms of the "consent judgment" as follows:

The defendant school board settled the lawsuit in which they had refused an honor student the right to wear her pentacle as a symbol of her religion while other students were allowed to wear crosses and other religious symbols. The settlement included payment of over $14,000 in legal fees to the ACLU, who represented Ms. Seifferly.

"The Witches Voice" chairperson, Rev. Wren Walker stated, "This judgment should send the clear and concise message to all public school districts that policies which single out any religion, religious symbol or other mode of religious expression for restriction will not go unchallenged." "Religious freedom as guaranteed in the Constitution of the United States applies to all religions and religious beliefs equally. This right has once again been verified and reinforced here today." This issue has been well litigated, and the rights of Wiccans to wear the pentacle as an emblem of their faith is well settled.

1999 CE - U.S. House of Representatives passed the Religious Liberty Protection Act (RLPA). H.R. 1691 is a bill designed to protect against state and local laws that place "a substantial burden upon a person's religious exercise."


Supporters of the legislation cited a long list of infringements upon religious liberties, including zoning regulations that discriminate against religious groups, laws against serving communion wine to children, and Muslim firefighters being unable to wear beards.

1999 CE - U.S. - Ft. Hood Army base, Texas, National Christian leaders and Congressman Robert L. Barr (R-Ga.) spoke out against rituals by Wiccans who had been allowed to practice their faith with Army approval for the past two years at Ft. Hood Army base in Texas. David L. Oringderff, Ph.D., co-author of the ''Overview and Guide for Wiccan in the Military,'' and founder of Sacred Well, which sponsored the congregation of the coven at Ft. Hood, was quoted in saying:

I am not a pacifist but I do abhor war and violence. The mission of the Army is to protect and defend the Constitution and the country. Though other pagans and Christians disagree, there is as much of a place in the Army for Wiccans as there is for Catholics or Baptists, Hindus or atheists.

Congressman Robert L. Barr (R-Ga.) had previously attempted attaching an amendment to a defense authorization bill outlawing the practice of Wicca on military bases. The amendment failed on procedural grounds but Barr has made clear he was determined to pass legislation on this issue. Barr wanted elected officials to determine which religions are legitimate and which were not. On Wednesday the 9th of June, 1999, a coalition of thirteen conservative Christian groups, including the Christian Coalition, the Free Congress Association, and the American Family Association, called on all Christians not to enlist or re-enlist in the military until Wicca is banned from military posts.

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