Chapter X: 1100 to 1299 CE

by Jesse Potter aka Elkin Vanaeon
 On this ninth day of August in the year of our Lord and Lady 2005 CE

1100 CE - The "Virgin Mary" is pronounced a Saint, the first woman revered in the Christian religion as the Mother of God. This also marked the period of the "New Asceticism", sought by monks who wished to engage in contemplation and self-examination. Two new orders are created:

St. Bernard of Clairvaux, leader of the Cistercians, establishes 343 monasteries before he dies.

1100 to 1400 CE - North America - The Sinagua, known as the Western Anasazi, occupied the area between present-day Flagstaff and Phoenix, Arizona between 500 and 1300 CE. They led a simple life based on corn farming, subsistence hunting and gathering at near three major Southwest cultures. The Sinagua thrive by assimilating various elements from several major cultural groups:

1119 CE - France - Hugues de Payens founds the Order of Knights Templars.

1123 CE - Rome - The First Lateran Council was summoned by Pope Calixtus II to signal the end of the investiture controversy by confirming the Concordat of Worms (1122), it was held in the Lateran Palace, Rome, making it the first council to be held in Western Europe. Many of the council's decrees became part of the evolving corpus of Medieval Latin canon law.

1135-1202 CE - Italy - Joachim of Fiore receives revelation of "Age of the Holy Spirit! " He began his religious life as a Cistercian monk from Calabria, Italy, and became infamous as a prophet after he had two visions giving him the gift of spiritual intelligence and enabling him to understand the inner meaning of history. Upon his death in 1202, several new religious orders claimed to be the order that he prophesied would convert the world. The Church did not support Joachim's teachings and his view of God was condemned at the Lateran Council of 1215, in 1259 all of his writings were condemned as being heretical.

1139 CE - Rome - Second Lateran Council. Convened at the Lateran Palace, Rome, by Pope Innocent II, the council attempted to heal the wounds left by the schism of the anti-pope Anacletus II (d. 1138) and condemned the theories of Arnold of Brescia. Among the council's canons were prohibitions of clerical concubinage and marriage and of the use of bows and crossbows in fighting Christians; simony and usury were also condemned.

1141 CE - France - Hugh of St. Victor writes the "Didascalicon" which condemns the use or study of magic. "Magic is not accepted as part of philosophy, but stands with a false claim outside it; the mistress of every form of iniquity and malice, lying about the truth and truly infecting men's minds, it seduces them from divine religion, prompts them from the cult of demons, fosters corruption of morals, and impels the minds of its devotees to every wicked and criminal indulgence. ... Sorcerers are those who, with demonic incantations or amulets or any other execrable types of remedies, by the cooperation of the devils or by evil instinct, perform wicked things."

1145-47 CE - Spain - The Second Crusade headed by Louis VII. The first groups to depart on the Second Crusade were Anglo-Norman and Flemish sailors and troops who left Dartmouth on May 19, 1147 bound for Spain. Their goal was to conquer a number of positions on the West Coast of Iberia, among them the city of Lisbon. Affonso I of Portugal was there when the Anglo-Norman troops landed in June 1147.

"The city was populous beyond belief, for as we learned from its alcayde (governor) after the capture of the city it had one hundred fifty-four thousand men, not counting women and children. Included were the citizens of Scantarem who had been expelled during this year from their stronghold and who were living in Lisbon as guests and immigrants. This number also included the leading citizens of Cintra, Almada, and Palmela, and many merchants from all parts of Spain and Africa. Although there were many citizens, the city had only fifteen thousand lances and shields with which to arm its men. They therefore came out in shifts, exchanging their weapons with one another, as their prince decreed."

1157 CE - Denmark - Torture is introduced as the official tool in questioning heretics.

1163 CE - Britain - King Henry II wants criminous clerks to be tried in secular courts as laymen. Beckett at the Council of Westminster accuses the assembled bishops of cowardice, and exhorts them to face martyrdom sooner than betray the rights of the Church. Henry II demanded the return of castles and manors, which Beckett should have relinquished when he resigned as Chancellor.

1164 CE - Britain - Beckett was charged before the Grand Council of Northampton with failing to appear in the King's Court without due cause. The assembled peers and bishops found him guilty. His assets were placed at the king's mercy, who confiscated all his property in the See of Canterbury, and ordered that all of Beckett's relatives be driven out of England!

1165 CE - Rome - Pope Alexander III annulled Beckett's conviction at the Great Council of Northampton. The Pope absolves Beckett and refuses to accept his resignation confirming him instead as the Archbishop of Canterbury. He subsequently gave the Archbishop full authority to excommunicate those who had seized the property of his See of Canterbury.

1170 CE - France - Peter Waldo, a merchant from Lyons, founded the Walden sect. The Waldenses, known as Waldensians or Vaudois, led blameless lives and met in secret assemblies to pray. They preached to those Christians disenchanted with the corruption of the Catholic clergy. They had the reputation of meeting in secret assemblies which the inquisitors, known for fabricating outrageous lies about them, used as the reason to persecute them.

1179 CE - Rome - Third Lateran Council convened at the Lateran Palace, Rome, by Pope Alexander III. The most important legislation was the first canon, which confirmed that the election of the pope was thereafter to be in the hands of the cardinals alone, two thirds being necessary for election. The council also condemned usury, tournaments, and brigandage.

1182 CE - France - Philip II banishes the Jews.

1184 CE - Rome - Pope Lucius III began the earliest Episcopal inquisition, in which Bishops were ordered to investigate any deviation from orthodox teachings of the Holy Mother Church. This was as an attempt to contain the Albigensian heresy. This is the beginning of the New Christian Crusades of Purification of the Church and all it's territories, which included all people within them.

1189 CE - America - Last known Norse visit to North America, several earlier settlements had faired badly and missing villagers had joined native populations. Many blue eyed Cherokee were later found as a result of joining in interracial marriages.

1188-92 CE - Jerusalem - The Third Crusade was led by Philip Augustas and Richard Coeur-De-Lion, in which 100,000 men were reduced by famine, plague, and desertions to 5,000 men!

1196-1227 - Asia - Genghis Khan became supreme ruler of all Mongols (Tartars) and conquers large parts of Asia

1198 - 1216 CE - Rome - Pope Innocent III (1161 - 1216) decreed papal-appointed inquisitors took precedence over local authorities and excommunicated both Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV (1182 - 1218) and King John of England (c. 1167 - 1216) in 1209. The Inquisition was formally established by the year 1200 CE!

1200 CE

1204 CE - Italy - Venetians bankers convince the soldiers of the Fourth Crusade to attack Constantinople, in order to pay off war debts to Venetian bankers before moving on to the Holy Land. During the invasion, siege, and looting, the City of Constantinople suffered the worst defeat of its history. The Eastern Church loses power afterwards and Latin domination by the Western Roman Church begins.

1204 CE - France - "The Inquisition" began moving against the Cathar sects. The Cathar Church had organized its dioceses in Southern France at this time.

1205 CE - Rome - Pope Innocent III fervently preached against Jewish heresy and maintained the doctrine of the Jews being a race of people doomed to perpetual servitude for their responsibility in the death of Christ. St Augustine maintained that every pagan, Jew, heretic and schismatic would be consumed by Hell Fire unless reconciled with and restored to the Catholic Church. Thomas Aquinas stated that "Jews are the slaves of the Church, she can dispose of their possessions." The Dominican Inquisition becomes the means of the Church to legalize slavery, confiscate all lands and properties, torturing and murdering anyone, in the name of Christ, chosen by the church to be heretics.

1206 CE - Italy - Pope Innocent III supports St. Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan order, who teaches his order to embrace poverty and imitate the life of Jesus by donating all properties whether land or wealth to the Church.

1208 CE - Rome - Pope Innocent III launches Crusade against the Albingensians (also known as Cathars) and Waldensians in southern France. In the ensuing war the whole territory was ravaged, crops destroyed, towns and cities razed, and the whole population was put to the sword. In Beziers alone in 1209, at least 20,000 men, women, and children were slaughtered wholesale - many of them in the sanctuary of the church itself. The French towns of Albi and Toulouse where also placed under siege by the Knights Templar and when the military commander asked the pope's representative how he might distinguish heretics from true believers, the reply was - "Kill them all.. God will know his Own" (Papal legate Arnaud-Amalric).

1208 CE - Britain - First recorded witchcraft trial in England. Gideon, alleged to be a sorcerer, is acquitted.

1209 CE - Britain - Cambridge University founded in England.

1212 CE - Spain - re-conquers the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims in the name of Christianity.

1212 CE - France - The Children's Crusade is led by a visionary French peasant boy, Stephen of Cloyes. Children embarked at Marseilles, hoping to succeed in the cause their elders had betrayed. According to later sources, they were sold into slavery and most of them perished of hunger and disease.

1215 CE - Rome - Pope Innocent III ordered all secular authorities to swear to exterminate all heretics identified by the Church. He organizes the Fourth Lateran Council in Rome to discuss and define central dogmas of Christianity. It recognized the necessity of the Eucharist and penance as sacraments for salvation, established the requirements of confession at least once a year and communion at Easter as the minimum requirement for church membership, called Easter duty. The Council forbade Priests to participate in trials by ordeal and called for the Fifth Crusade to be warred under papal guidance by sea. King Andrew II of Hungary, Duke Leopold VI of Austria, John of Brienne and the papal legate Pelasius were among the leaders of the expedition aimed at Egypt, the center of Muslim strength. Damietta (Dumyat) was taken in 1219 but evacuated after the defeat of 1221.

1215 CE - Britain - English barons force King John to agree to a statement of their rights, which was the signing of the Magna Carta.

1215 CE - Rome - Pope Innocent III appointed St Dominic to head the Inquisition.

1215 CE - Jews were required to wear distinctive clothing.

1216 CE - Pope Innocent III authorizes Spanish theologian Dominic, who founded the Dominican Order of monks, to begin the Dominicans Inquisition to end all heresy by converting all Muslims and Jews.

1217 CE - Egypt - The Fifth Crusade included the conquest of Damietta.

1220 CE - Ireland - The nuns of the Abbey of St. Brigit of Kildare refused to be subordinate to priests and to open their abbey and submit their Order to inspection. The Abbess asked for another female official to perform the inspections which incensed the Bishop, The Abbey was closed and the Bishop decreed the keeping of the eternal flame was a Pagan custom and ordered it to be extinguished. Under the 1960 modernization of Vatican II, St Brigit it was de-canonized after having declared there was insufficient proof of Brigit's sanctity or of her historical existence.

1220 CE - Historian Snorri Sturluson wrote (in Norwegian) the "Heimskringla" (Chronicle of the Kings of Norway), the "Ynglinga Saga" (The Story of the Yngling Family from Odin), "Halfdan the Black", and the "Prose Edda" (Younger Edda). This is the Upsala Codex - a document from the later 1330 CE, which translates the Prose Edda (Younger Edda) to Aenlish.

Snorri Sturluson was an orthodox Christian, who's stance in the Prose Edda was to adopt the Christian views of his times as to the beginnings of the world - to the early Pagan Sagas sung over a thousand years, of which very few were ever written down. This was seen especially within the Prologue, which provided the Christian aspect of Adam and Eve as well as the flood from the Bible that was typical of his theological need to add a similar starting point for the Prose Edda, which was particularly pagan in Nature. The Prose Edda did identify the pagan peoples and their lineage that journeyed to northwestern Europe and the effects of this journey in Central Europe and Asia as they passed through them. Though roughly defined he does show the journey of real men and women within the Sagas who were later projected into legend.

After the Prologue is the beginning of the Journey starting in Troy - Near the center of the world where what we call Turkey lies, was built the most famous of all palaces and halls - Troy by name. That town was built on a much larger scale than others then in existence and in many ways with greater skill, so lavishly was it equipped. There were twelve kingdoms with one over-king, and each kingdom contained many peoples. In the citadel were twelve chieftains and these excelled other men then living in every human fashion.

One of the kings was called Múnón or Mennón. He married a daughter of the chief king Priam who was called Tróáin, and they had a son named Trór - we call him Thór. He was brought up in Thrace by a duke called Loricus and, when he was ten years old, he received his father's arms. When he took his place amongst other men he was as beautiful to look at as ivory inlaid in oak; his hair was lovelier than gold. At twelve years old he had come to his full strength and then he lifted ten bear pelts from the ground at once and killed his foster father Loricus with his wife Lóri or Glóri, and took possession of the realm of Thrace - we call that Thrúdheim.

(Historical comments - "The Thracians were of Indo-European origin and related to the Greeks, as well as to the Illyrians and the Phrygians. They were also kin to the Trojans who spoke almost the same language. In the war of Troy, the Thracians were allied to the Trojans and according to Herodotus, the Thracians were the biggest nation in the world next to the Indian nation. The first inhabitants of this region were various Pelasgic tribes composed of the Kikons, Myssians, Vyssians, Getes, Dakes, Agrians, Pieres, Vryges or Phrygians, Paions, Skyrmiads, Nipsaioi, Sapaioi, Vaitoi, Vistons, Dersaioi, Korpilloi, Edons, Dioi, Satres, Odrysses, Trivalloi, etc.")

Thor's Journey - After that he traveled far and wide exploring all the regions of the world and by himself overcoming all the berserks and giants and an enormous dragon and many wild beasts. In the northern part of the world he met with and married a prophetess called Sibyl whom we call Sif. I do not know Sif's genealogy but she was a most beautiful woman with hair like gold. Lóridi, who resembled his father, was their son.

Odin's Genisis to the New Asgard in the "North Lands!" Odin, and also his wife, had the gift of prophecy, and by means of this magic art he discovered that his name would be famous in the northern part of the world and honored above that of all kings. For this reason he decided to set out on a journey from Turkey. A great host accompanied him of old and young, men and women, and they had with them many valuables. Through whatever lands they went such glorious exploits were related of them that they were looked on as gods rather than men. They did not halt on their journey until they came to the north of the country now called Germany.

There Ódin lived for a long time taking possession of much of the land and appointing three of his sons to defend it:

Great and numerous kindreds have come from all of them. Then Odin set off on his journey north and coming to the land called Reidgotaland and took possession of everything he wanted in that country. He appointed his son Skjöld to govern there; his son was Fridleif; from thence has come the family known as Skjöldungar; they are kings of Denmark and what was then called Reidgotaland is now named Judand.

Thereafter Odin went north to what is now called Sweden. There was a king there called Gylfi and, when he heard of the expedition of the men of Asia, as the Ćsir were called, he went to meet them and offered Odin as much authority over his kingdom as he himself desired. Their travels were attended by such prosperity that, wherever they stayed in a country, that region enjoyed good harvests and peace, and everyone believed that they caused this, since the native inhabitants had never seen any other people like them for good looks and intelligence.

The plains and natural resources of life in Sweden struck Odin as being favorable and he chose there for himself a townsite now called Sigtuna. There he appointed chieftains after the pattern of Troy, establishing twelve rulers to administer the laws of the land, and he drew up a code of law like that which had held in Troy and to which the Trojans had been accustomed.

After that, he traveled north until he reached the sea, which they thought encircled the whole world, and placed his son over the kingdom now called Norway. Their son was called Saeming and, as it says in the Háleygjatal, together with the earls and other rulers the kings of Norway trace their genealogies back to him.

Odin kept by him the son called Yngvi, who was king of Sweden after him, and from him have come the families known as Ynglingar. The Ćsir and some of their sons married with the women of the lands they settled, and their families became so numerous in Germany and thence over the north that their language, that of the men of Asia, became the language proper to all these countries. From the fact that their genealogies are written down, men suppose that these names came along with this language, and that it was brought here to the north of the world, to Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Germany, by the Ćsir. In England, however, there are ancient district and place names, which must be understood as deriving from a different language.

1225 - 1274 CE - Thomas Aquinas codifies the Catholic theology in works such as Summa Theologica, marking the high point of the medieval scholastic movement.

1228-29 CE - Jerusalem - The Sixth Crusade, which included Frederick II, Thibaud de Champagne and Richard of Cornwall was undertaken by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, who made truce with the Muslims, securing the partial surrender of Jerusalem and other holy places. Frederick crowned himself king of Jerusalem, but, occupied with Western affairs, he did nothing when the Muslims later reoccupied the city.

1231 CE - Italy - Date of the earliest legislation on the topic of torture in Italy.

1231 CE - Germany - Conrad of Marburg was appointed the first Inquisitor of Germany. In his reign he claimed to have uncovered many nests of "Devil worshippers" and adopted the motto of "We would gladly burn a hundred if just one of them is guilty."

1233 CE - Rome - Pope Gregory IX declares only Dominicans could act as papal-appointed inquisitors to abolish heresy and papal agents were to remain in each locality until all vestiges of heresy was destroyed. The Dominican Inquisition was a Crusade against all heretics and focused their attention on the extermination of the Cathars and the Cathar Church between 1220 and 1240. Despite the Albigensian Crusade, Catharism survived in the Languedoc region to reemerge by 1300.

1235 CE - Africa -The small state of Kangaba led by Sundjata Keita (or Sundiata Keita) defeats the nearby kingdom of Susu at the Battle of Kirina in 1235. The clans of the heartland become unified under Sundjata, now king of the vast region that was to become the Mali Empire. The rulers of Mali are nominally converted to Islam, though this did not preclude belief and practice of traditional Mande religions.

1239 CE - France - One hundred and eighty Cathari were executed at Montwimer in May of 1239.

1241 CE - Britain - William Marise, a pirate, is recorded as the first person to have been hung, drawn, and quartered in England.

1240 CE - France - A Paris court tried the Talmud for heresy and blasphemy, 24 cartloads of Talmudic works were confined to the flames. It was feared that honest Christians might be seduced from the One True Faith.

1245-1250 CE - Britain - The gathering of the Druidic Order of Oxford with representatives from many lands established the direction and creeds of the Mount Haemus Grove, which still exists.

1249-52 CE - Egypt - The Seventh Crusade is led by Louis IX of France with Egypt being the object of attack. Damietta fell in 1249 and an expedition to Cairo failed in 1250, Louis was captured and later spent four years improving the fortifications left to the Christians in the Holy Land after his release from captivity

1250 CE - The title Doctor, which was not a title originally used in medicine, begins to be seen historical in the use of the terms Dominus or Magister, which were doctorate titles to those who's duty was to expound and apply theological as well as secular law during this time. Historical records of the "Four Doctors" who succeeded Irnerius at Bologna were:

They were examples of jurists of those earlier times whose duties and "Right of Doctors" to apply law was based on scriptual grounds:

1250 CE - Britain - Abolition of trial by fire or water established in England.

1250 CE - Africa - Zimbabwe (meaning "stone house" or building), which are massive, are being constructed in southeastern Africa by ancestors of the Shona peoples of modern Zimbabwe.

1252 CE - Vatican - The papacy had approved the use of torture for religious disobedience. Pope Innocent IV continues the authorization of the seizure of all properties but with a new twist, now just the accusation of heresy becomes enough evidence to imprison, torture and execute heretics. Pope Innocent IV grants complete anonymity to the accusers of heretics by 1254 CE.

1252 CE - Rome - The murderers of the Inquisitor Peter Martyr were indicted for heresy rather than murder. They were arraigned for obstructing the judicial process of the Inquisition.

1256 CE - Spain - First recorded official use of torture recorded in Spain

1258 CE - Bagdad - Mongol (Tartars) invade and destroy the Islamic Abbasid dynasty. Eight hundred thousand people are killed and the city of Baghdad is looted, destroyed and burnt. The Caliph was sewn up in a sack and trampled to death under the feet of Mongol horses.

1258 CE - Rome - Pope Alexander IV issued two Bulls in 1258 and 1260, which instructed inquisitors to differentiate between witchcraft and heresy. Pope Gregory IX had issued an earlier Bull to eradicate any form of heresy in German lands. His Bull of 1233 is credited with having introduced the Inquisition into German territories.

1265 CE - Italy - Dante Alighieri is born in Florence, extensively educated in literature, philosophy, and Scholastic theology known later for writing the Divine Comedy.

1270 CE - America - Anasazi Indians in North America abandoned the well-developed community at Navajo Mountain. Southern Utes and Paiutes call the Anasazi the muukwitsi, meaning "the dead," and believe that the dead, their spirits, and spiders are interrelated. Utes use the same name to refer to the Hopi, "Moqui" (pronounced Mawkwi, not Mokee) - a term applied only to this pueblo group.

Uto-Aztecan speakers were in the area of Present days Death Valley in southern California. This language family started to diversify 5,000 years ago into nine major groups known today. Numic speakers comprised one of these divisions, which includes the language spoken by today's Utes and Paiutes. These two groups moved northeasterly; but they remained on the edge of the Great Basin until about 1,000 years ago, when they moved rapidly into the basin and eventually onto the neighboring Colorado Plateau.

1270 CE - Turkey - The Eighth Crusade resulted in the fall of Jaffa and Antioch in 1268 to the Muslims, which caused Louis IX to undertake the Eighth Crusade, which was cut short by his death in Tunisia

1271to 1272 CE - Britain - Prince Edward (later Edward I of England) led the Ninth Crusade. He landed at Acre but retired after concluding a truce. The Muslims conquer Tripoli in 1289 and the last Christian stronghold of Acre in 1291.

1274 CE - Britain - When Edward returned from the crusades, the Council of Lyons under Pope Gregory X ordered the Christians to condemn the sin of usury and those who conducted it, both native-born and foreign. Pious Edward, being a loyal son of the Church ordered an investigation into the practices of the Florentine bankers, which had been in England since 1223. There then followed an investigation of the Jews.

1280 CE - France - Diocesan Council of Conserans declare worshippers of a Pagan Goddess are witches that fly during the dark of night.

1282 CE - Scotland - An irate parishioner who deplored a priest's action in leading a phallic dance in Easter Week stabs a parish priest in Scotland to death.

1290 CE - Norway - Margaret (Maid of Norway), dies and leaves a struggle for the throne of Scotland - 13 people claim title of King.

1290 CE - Britain - Under Edward I, the Edict of Expulsion of Jews was read. On the 18th of July of 1290 CE, by an Act of the King in his Council, writs were issued to the sheriffs of many English counties informing them by Royal Decree that all Jews were ordered to leave England before the 1st of November; any who remained were declared liable to be executed. Parliament promptly agreed to royal demand to charge for a fifteenth of movables and a tenth of the spiritual revenue, in taxation against Jews.

1291 CE - Palestine - Saracene armies capture Acre, the last Christian outpost in Palestine, thus officially ending the Crusades.

1296 CE - Britain - Edward I of England deposes John Balliol from the Scottish throne, takes control of Scotland.

1296 CE - Rome - Pope Boniface VIII issued a Bull forbidding the payment of taxes by clergy to lay rulers.

1297 CE - Scotland - Scottish patriot William Wallace defeats an English army at the Battle of Cambuskenneth.


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