Chapter V: The Definitions
by Jesse Potter aka Elkin Vanaeon
On this ninth
day of August in the year of our Lord and
Lady 2005 CE
are necessary for the understanding of this book and particularly useful as
reference material. Many of the reference books that I researched provided only
very limited information on this material.
The Definition of
Conscience - (Con"science) (?),
conscience, fr. L. conscientia,
fr. consciens, p.pr. of conscire to know, to be
conscious; con- + scire to know
- Knowledge of one's own thoughts or actions;
consciousness. [Obs.] "The sweetest cordial we
receive, at last, Is conscience of our virtuous actions past." Denham.
- The faculty, power, or inward principle which
decides as to the character of one's own actions, purposes, and affections,
warning against and condemning that which is wrong, and approving and prompting
to that which is right; the moral faculty passing judgment on one's self; the
moral sense. "My conscience hath a thousand several tongues, And every
tongue brings in a several tale, and every tale condemns me for a
villain." Shak. "As science means knowledge,
conscience etymologically means self-knowledge . . . But the English word
implies a moral standard of action in the mind as well as a consciousness of
our own actions. . . . Conscience is the reason, employed about questions of
right and wrong, and accompanied with the sentiments of approbation and
- The estimate or determination of conscience;
conviction or right or duty. "Conscience supposes the existence of some
such [i.e., moral] faculty, and
properly signifies our consciousness of having acted agreeably or contrary to
its directions." Adam Smith.
- Tenderness of feeling; pity. [Obs.] Chaucer.
- Conscience as in Civil Liberties - Individual
freedoms that are thought to be essential to the operation of liberal
democratic societies. These include freedom of speech, association, religion,
conscience, and movement, freedom before the law, and the right to a fair
trial. In some political systems (eg the USA) the
freedoms are constitutionally guaranteed in a bill of rights, while in others (eg the UK) they form part of the ordinary law.
- Conscience as in Conscientious Objection - A
refusal to accept a particular policy, plan, or course of action, because to do
so would go against one's conscience. Often invoked by pacifists or others
objecting to military service, though the State may not always recognize
conscientious objection as a citizen's 'right'.
- Conscience as in Declaration of the Rights of
Man and Citizen - A declaration made by the French National Assembly (27 Aug
1789), proclaiming liberty of conscience, of property, and of the press, and
freedom from arbitrary imprisonment. It finally ended the privileged system of
the ancien régime.
- Conscience as in Great Awakening - a religious
reaction in the 1730s that came to be known as the Great Awakening. Its
inspiration came from people who's beliefs led to the proliferation of sects
and denominations, which in turn encouraged general acceptance of the principle
of religious toleration.
The Definition of
Evil, as the term
is applied in the Human context, is perceived as the immoral actions of someone
that results in the suffering of another.
- Human evil is sometimes contrasted or compared
to with what is described as an "evil of nature", such as what
results from natural disasters such as tornadoes, hurricanes, tsunami, or
- The term 'evil' is normally used as a synonym
for an extreme form of action perceived as a moral wrong.
problem discussed in today's courts is whether people rationally choose evil
instead of good, as an evil act committed intentionally or unintentionally. It
has been argued that people do not choose evil, as such, but rather pursue and
act upon personal interests or a people's own cause or interests which they
identify at the expense of the interests of other people, of which evil is a
by-product of such pursuits.
Those who are
judges of society claim it is unreasonable to believe that determinations of
what is good cannot be defended without comparisons of "good and
evil" in claims of:
- The 'freewill defense', in which the greater
good of humanity is determined through having the freedom to choose between
good and evil, involves no one, not even God, in preventing them from bringing
about good or evil.
The 'higher-order defense' in which the
existence of evil gives humanity opportunities to perform, in response to them,
heroic actions of showing courage, patience, and sympathy, opportunities that
they would not otherwise display.
Evil', defined in
terms of religion and worship, is the measure of perceived impurity of someone
or something against the perceived purity and goodness of deity, which is
usually determined by those who interpret and teach the worship of deity.
Intolerance to differences of beliefs of good or evil, within the context of
religious ideologies (seen as extreme differences between beliefs) of various
cultures resulted in extreme actions of persecution and death of many peoples
and cultures throughout history. The differences of beliefs of evil have been
referenced and presented in several theories of ideologies, such as:
- Evil does not really exist except in the mind,
seen as an illusion and perceived as the difference between light and darkness.
Evil is a necessary part of a good whole, seen
as the dark areas in a painting that contributes to the perfection of the
Evil is a privation perceived as an event of
inevitability and measured from the loss of what is considered good or proper
compared to the difference made by that loss, which could be acknowledged in
the outcome. It is the respecting of something that was taken for granted which
when deprived of, such as blindness in one-eye, results in the realization of
that loss and the respecting of what is left, such as the good sight of the
- Evil is what detracts from the goodness of the
whole, which must be removed, seen as a cancer that must be destroyed so that
what is perceived as what is the good of the body will not be further harmed.
Each of these
perceptions, though valid, must be viewed altogether in order to judge the true
nature of humanity. The judgements of good or evil, within the context of the
religious beliefs of people, are determined by people representing and
determining religious beliefs, the forming of religions, and the perceived will
of the deity they worship. Religious cultures, especially western views of
monotheism, see the dominance of deity as being omnipotent, omniscient, and
absolute in power and purity, with humanity bound in judgement to be submissive
to that deity for the past, present and future wrongs of its actions. Such
dominant beliefs of deity and submissive views of humanity provide the means of
religious institutions, which interpret the will of deity, to believe they have
the right to determine the physical as well as spiritual judgements of
humanity. These determinations go beyond the normal scope of right and wrong in
the judging of the souls of peoples of societies, manifested in the beliefs of
differences between good and evil perceived as:
- Good, as in the rewards of long life and good
health until death with the promise of a heavenly existence (death of the body
but salvation of the soul).
- Evil, as in the punishments of pain, suffering,
and the death of the body and torment of the soul.
Such beliefs also
included the reasoning, of the actions of deity, of directing necessary evils
towards humanity for the testing of faith and education of people to determine
whether they are:
- Judged righteous and pure (good and innocent of
- Judged unrighteous and impure (lacking in
innocence, guilty or guilty by association).
- The testing of
faith, deemed as a justified necessary evil, was seen through acts of reward
and punishment directed towards what or who is loved and cherished, such as:
- Being personally stricken by disease incurred by
deity as a test to see if you will hold true to your faith.
- Having a loved ones become ill or die due to
incorrect choices, thus incurring guilt on a person or a people judged not to
be favored by deity.
- The abandonment of protection from harm by deity
during times of hardship to people. Justified to prove protection and
dependence on deity was necessary and usually reasoned by those chosen to be
the interpreters of deity as having been caused by corruption and impurity of
judgmental religious ideologies claim humanity to be imperfect when compared to
the perfection of deity. Thus being unable to understand the reasoning of deity
in having imposed necessary evils upon them or in the determining what greater
judgements are needed before humanity can be declared good or free from evil. One
of the more obscure lessons in life incurred by deity, reasoned by theists, is
in the need for necessary evils that result in the suffrage of humanity such
as, in order for some people to live a good life while others must be allowed
to suffer. Within such beliefs, it is considered a privilege to be used by
deity for such a useful purpose since those same beliefs also promise the
possibility of compensation to those sufferers in an afterlife.
The problem with
the reasoning of such religious ideologies is whether a people of free will
would want to choose:
- To believe in or worship a deity of dominance
and submission or of deity of loving guidance and compassion,
- To believe deity has the right to use or punish
people in such a derogatory fashion without choice, or to believe in the
natural causes of age, illnesses, and actions of life that affects all living
- To accept teachings of the bindings of manifest
destiny or to be free in being the creators of there own destiny.
The testing of
faith, of necessary evils imposed on humanity and the privileges of being used
by deity was reasoned as the means of proving to humanity that it is unable to
rule itself unless through divine intervention under the guidance of religious
institutions that interpreted the will of deity.
Within the history
of our world many religious institutions, when joined with political power,
have proven time and again to be intolerant and the cause of many of the evils
and suffrages incurred in the name of deity, towards peoples of different
beliefs throughout history. Over time societies evolved and recognized the need
to establish humane laws and ideologies to protect human rights, which included
the religious freedom of different peoples to practice beliefs other than just
those of domination and submission. This resulted in the establishing of more
ethical and balanced societies, in which some deemed the separation of the
powers of church and state as being necessary for a more ethical people.
The Definition of
Ethics is the branch of philosophy
dealing with the concepts and principles of morality, which include theoretical
- The source and foundation of morality,
- The status and justification of moral rules,
- The relationship between moral and other human
- The nature of responsibility.
It is the creating
and applying of morals and principles as ethics, which is an evolutionary
process, that leads to the need of discovering truths of what was deemed right
or wrong in the evaluation of correct or incorrect past historical judgements.
What is deemed ethically correct is then presented and ideologically applied in
today's societies as human rights and universal ethics, which are not applied
or accepted by all peoples of the world:
- The cherishing, protection, healing, and
restoring of women's and children's rights so that they will no longer be
exploited as commodities.
- Care and equality between women, men, and all
peoples as to respect with each other and to value their differences, which
include the acknowledgment and respect of the value of all peoples of cultural
and religious diversity woven in the fabric of life of our world.
The Definition of 'Morality'
Morality can be used either:
- "Descriptively" to refer to a code of
conduct that is acceptable or unacceptable by,
Or "Normatively" to refer to a code of
conduct that when given specified conditions would be put forward by all
individual as a pattern for personal ethics and behavior; such as in activities
of finding a mate (dating), eating particular foods (vegetarian or carnivore),
or war as in the care of prisoners as well as keeping of treaties.
intimate peer group - such as a family, religious circle, or tribe.
external peer group - such as a business or organization.
If a person is
brought up in a specific society, it is to the degree of how morality is
defined within that society as to how that individual and people within that
society are to be judged. To take on a "morality" is to refer to a
code of conduct that leads to some form of understanding of the principles and
ethics of society and how they relate to oneself to that society, relating to
the constantly changing conditions of that society. This results in many
different forms of moral theories by those who use "morality" as a
rational people in the normative sense.
Morality go hand in hand with each other. A person or people of a society must
take an ethical stance in order to form a moral decision. Whether that decision
is right or wrong matters in the outcome as to what injury, lack of injury, or
benefit is derived from those actions.
The Definition of Soul, as to what is it?
Some of this definition is from the
excerpt of the "Language of the Heart", by Carl H. Claudy, printed in March of 1929. The soul, or spirit,
comprehends a language, which the logic of the brain does not understand. The
keenest minds have striven without success to make this mystic language plain
to reason. Yet when you hear music or poetry, which brings tears to your eyes and
grief or joy to your heart, you respond to a language, which is felt but not
easily understood or explained. It is not with logic that you love your mother,
your child or your wife - it is felt and expressed from the "Something
Beyond" of the language of the heart, which is not easily translated by
the mind or spoken by the tongue.
It is through such
an esoteric language and symbolism that we speak the language of the soul and
spirit, one to another, which each of us reads and speaks according to his or
her ability to interpret it.
Defining Differences in Various Beliefs of
beliefs of humanity have been portrayed through history as a bewildering
variety of religions, cults, sects, denominations, and spiritual movements
having been formed through the ages. The world's religions are reflected by the
people and defined by the diversity of their geographic locations, social
cultures, and language. There are common principles, definitions, or criteria
of meaning that identifies "each and all" of the many religions of
the world. These are various expressions of Religion and religious beliefs:
- Religion as defined from the New Advent Catholic
Encyclopedia, means the voluntary subjection of oneself to God. It exists in
its highest perfection in heaven, where the angels and saints love, praise, and
adore God, and live in absolute conformity to His holy will. It does not exist
at all in hell, where the subordination of rational creatures to their Creator
is one not of free will, but of physical necessity. On earth it is practically
coextensive with the human race, though, where it has not been elevated to the
supernatural plane through Divine revelation, it labors under serious defects.
- Religion as defined from Black's Law Dictionary
- It is the belief of Man's relation to Divinity, to reverence, worship,
obedience, and submission to mandates and precepts of supernatural or superior
beings. In its broadest sense includes all forms of belief in the existence of
superior beings exercising power over human beings by volition, imposing rules
of conduct, with future rewards and punishments.
- The "Weltanschauung" definition of
Nature and of Religion - Religion is the belief of God, and faith in his moral
government out of which springs the idea of a "kingdom of God" as the
end of the Divine conduct of history. The Father-God of Christ, is the only one
capable of satisfying man's religious or moral aspirations, that therefore man
has been able to produce it from his own resources. Even if he were able, this
alone would not satisfy the religious necessity. For religion craves not merely
for the idea of God, but for personal fellowship and communion with Him, and
this can only take place on the ground that God and man are in some way brought
together--in other words, on the basis of Divine Revelation or manifestation.
- "The Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion",
states on page p. 647: "Religion - from the Latin 'religare'
('to bind fast') - typically the term refers to an institution with a
recognized body of communicants who gather together regularly for worship, and
accept a set of doctrines offering some means of relating the individual to
what is taken to be the ultimate nature of reality."
- Religious Belief, my own personal and esoteric -
Ones inter-personal relationship of self with Divinity which is inclusive of
reverence, worship, learning and understanding of order and chaos. Being
connected to Deity in order to perceive the full spectrum of all that lives,
has lived, and all that has passed beyond. It is the exercising of power over
ones own connection to everything and choosing to become more than oneself in
the context of all that exists to achieve a higher aspect of oneself closer to
Deity. In its broadest sense, religion includes all forms of belief in the
existence of deity without absolutes in the forming of values, ethics, and
morals to guide oneself through life.
A Religion comes into being when people of
similar beliefs join in common worship. "Personal Beliefs" are
judged as Conscientious, Religious, or Political in Nature. Whichever the case
may be - societies require relative ethical and moral values within that
individuals belief system, in order for that individual to actively participate
in a beneficial manner within that society. Societies are made up of many people
involving many cultures. He or she, as an individual of one culture living within
a society of peoples, uses a belief system as a reference in order to help
establish ethical and moral values that will benefit the individual within their
Beliefs of differing
peoples are usually in conflict within Society. Individuals believing natural
resources should be exploited for profit are contrary to those who believe
natural resources should be cherished and protected. This is especially true
when societies believe in the right of government to supersede or impede the
freedom of choice of personal or religious beliefs of their people.
Whatever the needs
or differences that are involved, it is the "Right of the Individual"
to choose what he or she accepts as a belief system. However, when a person
expresses those beliefs, it is by those beliefs that the individual will be
judged by his or her fellow members of society.
In the year 2002
CE, terrorism was openly declared an entity to be warred upon by the United
States and other Countries of the World. This book is merely a reminder that
people, institutions, and governments of the present as well as the past who
have denied others their human rights of religious and civil liberties through
the use of physical and or emotional violence are considered terrorists within
the definitions of terrorism in today's society.
The definition of
terrorism is the proposed act of or actual 'Use of Violence' to induce a state
of fear through acts of intimidation, coercion, or threats. This includes all forms
- Physical violence as in the actual revoking of
human rights, physical and sexual abuse, kidnapping, murder or assassination,
rape or beating of another.
- Emotional violence as in threats of intimidation
or coercion of revoking of human rights, physical and sexual abuse, kidnapping,
murder or assassination, rape or beating of another.
It is the 'Use of
Fear' to intimidate, coerce or threaten another person, group, or entity. In
order to produce a state of fear that will affect or change the reasoning of
normal decision making processes so that abnormal actions will be directed
towards an outcome that otherwise would not have been made. The "Use of
Fear" to intimidate, coerce or threaten another person, group, or entity
within the definition of Terrorism would include the attempt to or the actual
- The outcome of feelings that affect the
determination and outcome of like or dislike of a family member, friend, social
belief, religious belief, political belief, etc.
- The outcome of political views that affect the
determination and outcome of a political decision.
- The outcome of legal views that limit or removes
a civil or religious liberty affecting the determination and outcome of a
- The outcome of judicial procedures in a court of
law or congressional or military investigation that affect the determination
and outcome of a judicial decision.
- The outcome of governmental policies within the
natural structure of a government that affect the determination and outcome of
a governmental procedure.
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