Making Natural Dyes

Making Natural Dyes From Plants

Gathering plant material for dyeing: Blossoms should be in full bloom, berries ripe and nuts mature. Remember, never gather more than 2/3 of a stand of anything in the wild when gathering plant stuff for dying.

To make the dye solution: Chop plant material into small pieces and place in a pot. Double the amount of water to plant material. Bring to a boil, then simmer for about an hour. Strain. Now you can add your fabric to be dyed. For a stronger shade, allow material to soak in the dye overnight.

Getting the fabric ready for the dye bath: You will have to soak the fabric in a color fixative before the dye process. This will make the color set in the fabric.

Color Fixatives:

Add fabric to the fixative and simmer for an hour. Rinse the material and squeeze out excess. Rinse in cool water until water runs clear.

Dye Bath: Place wet fabric in dye bath. Simmer together until desired color is obtained. The color of the fabric will be lighter when its dry. Also note that all dyed fabric should be laundered in cold water and separately. Muslin, silk, cotton and wool work best for natural dyes and the lighter the fabric in color, the better. White or pastel colors work the best.

NOTE: It's best to use an old large pot as your dye vessel. Wear rubber gloves to handle the fabric that has been dyed, the dye can stain your hands. It's also important to note, some plant dyes may be toxic, check with the Poison Control Center if unsure.

List of plant material available for dyes

Shades Of Orange

 Shades Of  Brown

  • Achiote (Bixa orellana)(seed)(annatto red to orange)
  • Bloodroot will give a good orange to reddish orange color.
  • Sassafras (leaves)
  • Onion skin
  • Lichen (gold)
  • Barberry (mahonia sp.) yellow orange (with alum) very strong & permanent. Any part of the plant will work.
  • Giant Coreopsis (Coreopsis gigantea) Yields bright permanent orange with alum.
  • Turmeric dyed cloth will turn orange or red if it is dipped in lye.
  • Wild plum root will give a reddish or rusty brown.
  • Oak bark will give a tan or oak color.
  • Sumac (leaves)
  • Walnut (hulls) (deep brown)(wear gloves)
  • Tea Bags (light brown)
  • Juniper berries
  • Coffee grinds
  • Acorns (boiled)
  • Yellow dock (produces shades of brown on wool)
  • Beetroot (Dark Brown With FeSO4)

Shades Of Pink

  • Strawberries
  • Cherries
  • Raspberries (red)
  • Roses and Lavender, with a little mint and some lemon juice to activate the alkaloids can make both a brilliant pink dye and a very tasty pink lemonade.
  • Lichens A pink, brown, or wine colored dye can be produced from a lichen known as British soldiers.
Click below to find the Colourants registered in the Colonial Period of Mexico

The "Florentine Codex" and the "Badianus Manuscript", also known as the "Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis" and the "Codex Barberini" with documents of the many colorants used by Aztec scribes, including names and descriptions, in the Aztec language, Nahuatl, and in Spanish!

Use your back key to return to this page!

 Shades Of Blue Purple

Shades Of  Red

  • Woad (first year leaves). Woad gives a pale to mid blue colour depending on the type of fabric and the amount of woad used.
  • Mulberries (royal purple)
  • Red cabbage
  • Elderberries (lavender)
  • Grapes (purple)
  • Blueberries
  • Cherry (roots)
  • Blackberry (strong purple)
  • Japanese indigo (deep blue)
  • Indigo (Indigofera suffruticosa)(bark)(light blue to dark purple)
  • Murex trunculus or the Banded dye-murex (Tyrian Purlpe, purple-blue indigo dye, called royal blue or hyacinth purple)
  • Sacatinta (Justicia tinctoria)(blue)
  • Red Cedar Root (purple)
  • Red Maple Tree (purple)(inner bark)
  • Red leaves will give a reddish brown color I use salt to set the dye.
  • Sumac (fruit) (light red)
  • Dandelion (root)
  • Beets (deep red)
  • Rose (hips)
  • Chokecherries
  • Madder (Rubia tinctorium)
  • Hibiscus Flowers (dried)
  • Sappanwood (Caesalpinia sappan)(red, the color of burning coals)
  • Teak (tectona grandis)(red)
  • Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata)(deep red)
  • Logwood, Campeachy, or Bloodwood tree (Haematoxylum campechianum)(deep red)

Shades Of Gray Black

 Shades Of Red Purple

  • Iris (roots)
  • Logwood, Campeachy, or Bloodwood tree (Haematoxylum campechianum) (steel grey to raven black)
  • Sumac (leaves) (Black)
  • Carob pod (boiled) will give a gray to cotton
  • Cabonero (bark) (Guarea guara) (black)
  • Pokeweed (berries)
  • Hibiscus (flowers)(dark red or purple ones) make a red-purple dye.
  • Daylilies (old blooms)
  • Logwood Purple (gray lavender to blue purple)

Shades Of Green

Shades Of Peach/Salmon

  • Artemisia species provide a range of greens from baby's breath to nettle green.
  • Spinach (leaves)
  • Black-Eyed Susans
  • Grass (yellow green)
  • Nettle
  • Plantain Roots
  • Lily-of-the-valley (light green) be careful what you do with the spent dye bath. The plant is toxic so try to avoid pouring it down the drain into the water supply.
  • Barberry root (wool was dyed a greenish bronze-gold)
  • Red onion (skin) (a medium green, lighter than forest green)
  • Broom Flower
  • Virginia Creeper (all parts); alum mordant; Peach.
  • Achiote powder (annatto seed
  • Plum tree (roots) (salmon color on wool with alum)

 Shades Of Yellow/Wheat

  • Saffron (yellow)
  • Syrian Rue (glows under black light)
  • Red Clover (whole blossom, leaves and stem); alum mordant; Gold.
  • Yellow cone flower (whole flower head); chrome mordant; Brass to Greeney-Brass.
  • Onion (skins)
  • Marigold (blossoms)
  • Willow (leaves)
  • Queen Anne's Lace
  • Burdock
  • Celery (leaves)
  • Golden Rod (flowers)
  • Sumac (bark)
  • Weld (bright yellow)
  • Cameleon plant (golden)
  • Dandelion flower
  • Osage Orange also known as Bois d'arc or hedgeapple (heartwood, inner bark, wood, shavings or sawdust) (pale yellow)
  • Pomegranate (gold to khaki)
  • Daffodil flower heads (after they have died); alum mordant
  • Mullen (leaf and root) pale yellow.
  • Hickory leaves (yellow) if plenty of leaves are boiled and salt added.
  • Tea ( ecru color)
  • Yellow, Curly, Bitter, or Butter Dock (despite various leaf shapes, all have a bright yellow taproot) gives you a yellow/flesh color.
  • Yuquilla (Curcuma longa)(yellow)
  • White mulberry tree (bark) Cream color onto white or off-white wool. Alum mordant.
  • Paprika (shade of pale yellow light orange)
  • Beetroot (yellow) (alum & K2Cr2O7)

Logwood Dyes

Logwood is the English name of both the dye and the tree from whose heartwood the dye comes. To prepare the best dyestuff from the tree requires that the heartwood first be well cleaned of the surrounding sapwood and bark. Then it must be rasped or planed into shavings, which are "aged" through a mild fermentation process. Then this rich, dark wood is dried and packaged to avoid deterioration by moisture. The actual dye from logwood is hematoxylin, a complex phenolic compound similar to the flavonoid pigments of flowers. The chemical structure of hematoxylin is practically identical with the dye brazilin from brazilwood, except that hematoxylin has one additional atom of oxygen. Hematoxylin is extracted by boiling chips or raspings of logwood in water. By exposure to the air the orange-red crystals of hematoxylin are gradually oxidized to metallic green crystals of another popular dye called hematein. The presence of a considerable amount of tannin in the purplish-red dye bath allows the logwood extract to react with iron salts to give a permanent black color.

Types of Logwoods:

Basic Dyeing Instructions - To prepare a good dye from the logwood shavings, it must be soaked overnight and then boiled vigorously about 30 minutes. The liquid is then strained out; this is the dyebath. More water can be added to the wood, as further boiling will extract more dye. Logwood requires a mordant to develop the color and fix the dye.

Advanced Dye Issues - The molecule that makes up the Logwood dye exists in three different forms, depending on how much oxygen has been incorporated into it.

Logwood is an "indicator" color, one that changes with the pH of the solution. Thus adding either acid or alkali to the dyebath can modify the hue obtained. Too much acid will actually cause the dye to "disappear". Just enough will give redder tones, while alkalis like chalk or bases like ammonia will turn the tone more blue.

Because the iron-Logwood combination has such a pronouncedly blue tone, iron-Logwood can be used to turn yellows and golds into lovely soft greens. Compounding mordants by adding tin or alum in with the iron gives very fashionable lavender grays.


Mordant Chart

Mordants are needed to set the color when using natural dyes. Different mordants will give different results.

Alum: (Aluminum Potassium Sulfate) This is the most widely used mordant. Alum is a double sulfate of aluminum and potassium. It's used to temper dried paints and grounds, making them insoluble to water, but not impervious. It will act as a mordant to set dyes and harden plaster like cement. Brown beeswax can be whitened by boiling it in alum water. Be careful not to use too much with wool, otherwise you will get a sticky feeling that doesn't come out.

Borax: Borax is an alkali, in ancient day's it was called "tin-cal", a Chinese word. Borax is found in landlocked lakes in Tibet and in the Dead Sea, where it was gathered and used in India as a textile mordant and in Egypt as a flux ingredient to make frit, an isolated copper pigment in glass. Boron is also found in boric acid and in the mineral sassolite, mined in Tuscany, Italy. It can be found in a mineral called tincalconite and ten others. Borax and shellac form the paint called "water shellac". Boron hardens metals, and makes soaps and medicine. Molten borax will dissolve insoluble metal oxides and is the flux for soldering, brazing and welding metals. Borax powder will kill cockroaches. It was also used to make a water varnish from stick-lac, the alcohol based tree sap pigments could also be made water soluble in a borax solution.

  • Indian Stick-lac could also be made from the secretion of the "coccus laccae" insect that lives in the bark of the Ficus tree, it's often called shellac, it can be made water soluble by adding borax, then its called water-shellac.
  • Red shellac is from East India, the red is the dye, removed by boiling in water. White shellac is made by adding potash lye or borax, as a red pigment the dye is precipitated on a clay base. It will work on dry lime secco paintings, not wet buon fresco, and in all other mediums.

Calcium Carbonate  Is to be used with indigo powder for the saxon blue color. It can also be used to lower the acidity of a dyebath.

Copper: (Copper Sulfate) This mordant is used to bring out the greens in dyes. It will also darken the dye colors, similar to using tin, but is less harsh.

Chrome: (Potassium Dichromate) Chrome brightens dye colors and is more commonly used with wool and mohair than with any other fiber. Preferably this should be your last choice in mordants due to the hazardous nature of this chemical. This Chemical is Extremely toxic - Chrome should not be inhaled and gloves should be worn while working with chrome. Left over mordant water should be disposed of at a chemical waste disposal site and treated as hazardous waste.

Iron: (Ferrous Sulfate) Dulls and darkens dye colours. Using too much will make the fiber brittle.

Glaubersalt: (Sodium Sulfate) Used in natural dyes to level out the bath. Also use in chemical dye.

Spectralite: (Thiourea Dioxide) This is a reducing agent for indigo dyeing.

Tara Powder: (Caesalpinia Spinosa) Tara Powder is a natural tannin product. It is needed for darker colors on cotton, linen and hemp.

Tartaric Acid: A must for cochineal. This mordant will expand the cochineal colors.

Tin: (Stannous Chloride) Tin will give extra bright colors to reds, oranges and yellows on protein fibers. Using too much will make wool and silk brittle. To avoid this you can add a pinch of tin at the end of the dying time with fiber that was premordanted with alum. Tin is not commonly used with cellulose fibers.


How To Use Natural Dyes

by Cheryl Kolander. Excerpted from HEMP! for Textile Artists, 1995. Modified March 2003.

This tutorial explains how to dye any fiber material (yarn, fiber, thread, fabric, etc) with natural dyes.

Principles of Natural Dyeing

  1. Most natural dyes need both a plant extract and a mineral mordant to make a permanent colour.
  2. The stronger the dye extract the more plant used the deeper the colour.
  3. Mineral (metal salt) mordants are always used in the same proportion. One can use less for a pale colour, but never use more, as too much metal can harm the fibre.
  4. All recipes are given as proprtions. Typically, amounts are for 1 pound of fiber. If you are dyeing more, increase the amounts, proportionally; if less, decrease, always proportionally. i.e. if you are dyeing 1/2 lb, use only 1/2 the recipe amount.
  5. Higher temperature means less time needed for dyeing, as does higher concentration of dyestuff. Some textiles may be heat or chemical sensitive - know your materials you are working with!
  6. Prepare your textile material for the rigours of the dyebath:

    Be patient - Work time is not that much, but processing time can take several days.

    Equipment and Materials

    Use big pots with plenty of room for the material to move freely. Otherwise the colour will dye very unevenly. You can use aluminum and iron pans only if your recipes include completely non-toxic dyestuffs and using alum and iron for mordants. Most dye work can be done in plastic buckets with the cold soak method (except the dye extraction itself). Stainless steel or unchipped enamel are recommended. Aluminum pots will take more scrubbing to clean, and may stain permanently with dark dyes. Iron darkens colours, so iron pots should be used only with recipes that call for iron. If other mordants are used, use a stainless steel or pyrex pot dedicated only to dyework because there will always be residue and you wouldn't want to eat from these pots.

    Step 1 - Preparing material and dye

    Mordanting your fiber material:
    • Weigh your textile material. All recipes are proportional, just as in cooking.
    • If choosing to use:
      • Alum - divide the weight of the material to dye by four. Weight out that much alum mordant. A scant two tablespoons equals one ounce of alum. Add the alum to the pot, and almost fill with warm water. Leave enough room to add the wet textile material. Stir until fully dissolved.
      • Other Mordants - use oz (two teaspoons) per pound fiber for tin, chrome, iron and copper.
    • Wet out the textile in warm water.
    • Add the wet textile. Gently stir so that it is opened out in the solution.
    • HEAT until the pot is hot, stirring occasionally for evenness of colour.
    • Keep it HOT for about 1 hour. (180 - 200 degrees F)
    • Let cool overnight.

    Alternative: begin with hot tap water. Put with your mordant in a plastic bucket and let it soak 3 to 5 days. (Lower temperature = more time). Silk is ready after soaking overnight. Tin, chrome and copper need to be heated to mordant well. Iron can be done cold.

    Meanwhile, extract the dye:

    • Boil your chosen dye material in plenty of water, (enough to loosely cover by several extra inches,):
      • FLOWERS - boil 20 minutes; strain off the water to make the dyebath.
      • BARKS, ROOTS, DYEWOODS - soak overnight, boil 1/2 hour, pour off and save the extract (this is the dye solution), add more water and boil again. Do this boiling and saving three times to make the dyebath. -or more times, as long as dye continues to extract.
      • COCHINEAL - if ground, boil 20 minutes; if whole, proceed as for barks.

    Step 2 - Dyeing

    • Add enough additional water to the dye solution so the textile can move freely in the dyebath.
    • Add the textile and heat to hot. Heat 1 hour or until the colour is the desired depth. Remember, the colour will lighten after it is rinsed and dried.
    • If the colour is too light, use more dyestuff. (But do not use more mordant.)
    • Cool the textile, rinse and dry. Handle the fibre according to its form:
      • Fibre should be gently swooshed in several changes of water, squeezed out and removed from its mesh bag only after it is partly dry. Then pull it gently to smooth and groom the roving.
      • Yarn should be rinsed with an up and down motion to help remove tangles and smooth it. Wring thoroughly. Shake out and twist it while drying, to soften.
      • Fabric can be run thru a wash cycle, without soap, in a machine; then tumbled dry to soften.

    Adjusting the Color

    Modifying Colours:

    Modify the colour, if desired, with the addition of a different mordant in order to change hues or tones of your primary color (See Mordant Chart). If you chose to use iron mordant then dissolve about 1 tablespoon of ferrous sulphate per pound textile. Fill a bucket with warm water, add the iron and transfer the textile to this "after mordant" bath. This is an important technique to know, for iron will turn golds to moss greens, reds to plum and maroon colours, and will darken browns. Many leaves and plants will make grey with iron as the only mordant needed.

    Color Additives

    Color Additives are Cosmetic Ingredients regulated by the FDA. It assures that color additives are safe for use on humans and contain no heavy metals, like Lead, Cadmium and Hexavalent Chromium. These are the color additives FDA approved for use: Drug and Cosmetic, or D&C, for use on the body and the Food, Drug and Cosmetic, FD&C, also approved for consumption. Certain Oxides, Ultramarines and Pearlescents are also approved for use.

    • Note that these are all synthetic. There are few approved "natural" colors permitted on the market such as Annatto Seed. There is no such thing as a "natural" color additive available.
    • Unless specifically approved, all natural color additives are banned by the FDA. The current FDA Summary can be viewed at:
    • Cosmetic grade color additives fall into 2 broad categories: Organics and Inorganics which can be Dyes or Pigments. From there, they branch off into subcategories.


    Organics are termed "Clean" colors or true brights and consist of the following categories:

    • Dyes - Dyes can be water soluble or oil soluble. There only a few oil soluble dyes available for cosmetic usage. Some water soluble dyes may present problems with "bleeding" if used in too high a concentration in your product. In transparent products, (such as Melt and Pour or Gels), dyes give a transparent color like food coloring.
    • Pigments - Pigments can be Organic or Inorganic. These are both water and oil insoluble and therefore do not dissolve but can be microscopically dispersed so they appear to be dissolved. Only dyes are soluble in a vehicle while pigments are insoluble compounds. Think of the difference between instant coffe and hot chocolate powder. The coffee dissolves but the powder is only dispersed and will fall to the bottom of your cup.

    The color from the dye is placed onto one of these salts as an insoluble base to hold the color. The salt to be used is determined by the color desired as the salts impact on the resulting tone. Some Lakes are also Rosinated. Rosin is derived from tree sap and gives a blue tone to reds.


    Inorganics are termed "Dirty" colors as they will never result in a true clean bright color, but don't misunderstand you can achieve gorgeous earthy tones with Inorganics. Here are the categories:


    Pearlescents are in a class of their own. These have been referred to and nicknamed as Mica. Their effects are achieved by simultaneous light reflection, refraction and transmission as it encounters translucent or transparent substances of high refractive indexes. Basically the white light is broken up similar to light through a prism creating a play of color. To manufacture pearlescents there are several steps required, hence the higher cost. A substrate of mica, (a quartz like substance that microscopically looks like tiny plates and resembles talc in appearance), is used and several color sources can be applied to achieve the desired color or effect.

    The particle size, which the thickness of the particle is primary, is measured in microns typically between <15 and <150 microns and dictates the effect of the light bending and reflecting off the substrate. This effect is referred to as Luster.

    As the particle size increases the opacity in your product decreases. At the low end your bar will look more opaque and at the high end your bar will still have transparency. Remember as well, as you add more of any pigment to your soap the opacity or transparency of your bar will decrease. The higher the particle size the more likely it is to sink in soap if the soap is poured at too high a temperature. Same for thin lotions or room sprays. Cooler soap is thicker and suspends the particles better.

    Color is achieved by coating the mica substrate with various dyes and pigments. Some are titanium dioxide/mica coated with an additional layer of colored pigment resulting in a brilliant color effects.

    Others are coated with Iron Oxides, either red or black, and using a larger thickness of the mica substrate to give the effect of a 2 tone or Interference Color. Held one way it will look one color and turned it will give off another. Interference colors are two toned pigments that give their effects as a result of light absorption and light interference. They result from coating the substrate with a color additive which absorbs light also called a background color which has a different tone than the reflective color of the interference pigment used over it.

    It is of importance that these nacreous pigments be properly dispersed to ensure each particle is separate. The effects of these pigments is also dependant on having the particles lined up in your product and not just have the pigment at random. When they are at random you will have a billowing effect of color from the soap being poured. Although this has the effect of a billowing cloud which can be nice on its own, this also decreases the ability of light to create a play of color. One way to help achieve alignment is to pour your soap and then using a spatula or hair pick drag the pigments in one direction. While pearlescents can have some spectacular results, keep in mind that they reflect better when they have what is known as a background color. A red with a red background will look even better than on its own.

    Notes on garment Dyeing

    Black wool dresses for renewing and checked goods, with the check not covered by the first operation, are operated upon as follows:

    Preparation or mordant for eight black dresses for renewing the color.

    Or without argol or tartar, but I think their use is beneficial. Boil twenty minutes, lift, rinse through two waters. To prepare dye boiler, put in 2 lb. logwood, boil twenty minutes.

    Clear the face - Before the dyeing operations, steep the goods in hand-heat soda water (soda water is carbonated water and may contain a small amount of table salt, sodium citrate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, potassium sulfate, or disodium phosphate), rinse through two warm waters. Discharge blues, mauves, etc., with diluted aquafortis (nitric acid). A skilled dyer can perform this operation without the least injury to the goods. This liquor is kept in stoneware, or a vessel made of caoutchouc (gum-elastic, or india-rubber) composition, or a large stone hollowed out of five slabs of stone, forming the bottom and four sides, braced together, and luted with caoutchouc (gum-elastic, or india-rubber), forming a water-tight vessel. The latter is the most convenient vessel, as it can be repaired. The others when once rent are past repair. The steam is introduced by means of a caoutchouc (gum-elastic, or india-rubber) coated pipe, and when brought to the boil the pipe is removed. After the colors are discharged, rinse through three warm waters. They are then ready to receive the mordant and the dye.

    Those with cotton and made-up dresses sewn with cotton same operation as before mentioned, using half the quantity of stuffs, and working cold throughout. Since the introduction of aniline black, some dyers use it in place of logwood both for wool and cotton. It answers very well for dippers, substituting 2 oz. aniline black for every pound logwood required. In dyeing light bottoms it is more expensive than logwood, even though the liquor be kept up, and, in my opinion, not so clear and black.

    Silk and wool dresses, poplins, and woolen dresses trimmed with silk, etc., for black:

    Clear the face - Before the dyeing operations, steep the goods in hand-heat soda water, rinse through two warm waters. Discharge blues, mauves, etc., with diluted aquafortis (nitric acid). A skilled dyer can perform this operation without the least injury to the goods. This liquor is kept in stoneware, or a vessel made of caoutchouc (gum-elastic, or india-rubber) composition, or a large stone hollowed out of five slabs of stone, forming the bottom and four sides, braced together, and luted with caoutchouc (gum-elastic, or india-rubber), forming a water-tight vessel. The latter is the most convenient vessel, as it can be repaired. The others when once rent are past repair. The steam is introduced by means of a caoutchouc (gum-elastic, or india-rubber) coated pipe, and when brought to the boil the pipe is removed. After the colors are discharged, rinse through three warm waters. They are then ready to receive the mordant and the dye.

    Note - The diluted aquafortis (nitric acid) vessel to be outside the dye-house, or, if inside, to be provided with a funnel to carry away the nitrous fumes, as it is dangerous to other colors.

    Preparation or mordant for eight dresses, silk and wool mixed, for black.

    Clear the face - Bring to the boil, dissolve the Copperas (Mordant modifier as Ferrous sulphate crystal), etc., shut off steam, enter the goods, handle gently (or else they will be faced, i.e., look gray on face when dyed) for one hour, lift, air, rinse through three warm waters.

    To prepare dye boiler, bring to boil, put in 8 lb. logwood (previously boiled), 1 lb. black or brown oil soap, shut off steam, enter goods, gently handle for half an hour, add another pound of soap (have the soap dissolved ready), and keep moving for another half hour, lift, finish in hand-heat soap. If very heavy, run through lukewarm water slightly acidulated with vitriol (sulfuric acid), rinse, hydro-extract, and hang in stove. Another method to clear them: Make up three lukewarm waters, in first put some bleaching liquor, in second a little vitriol (sulfuric acid), handle these two, and rinse through the third, hydro-extract, and hang in stove.

    Note - This is the method employed generally in small dye-works for all dresses for black; their lots are so small. This preparation can be kept up, if care is taken that none of the sediment of the Copperas (Mordant modifier as Ferrous sulphate crystal) is introduced when charging, as the Mordant modifier as Ferrous sulphate crystal creates stains. This also happens when the water used contains iron in quantity or impure Copperas (Mordant modifier as Ferrous sulphate crystal). The remedy is to substitute half a gill (2 1/2 oz.) of vitriol (sulfuric acid) in place of tartar.

    Silk, wool, and cotton mixed dresses, for black

    Dye the silk and wool as before described, and also the cotton in the manner previously mentioned.

    Another method to dye the mixed silk and wool and cotton dresses black

    Clear the face - Shut off steam, enter, and handle for half an hour, lift, rinse through water,

    Dye the cotton in the manner previously described.


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