Nutritional Terms

A (Retinol) - Vitamin A has antioxidant properties, important for eye protection and bone growth; protein and hormone synthesis (including GH and testosterone); supports tissue maintenance. Helps reduce susceptibility to infection. Essential for healthy skin, good blood, strong bones and teeth, kidneys, bladder, lungs and membranes.

Acesulfame-K - An artificial sweetener approved in 1988, this sweetener is 200 times sweeter than sugar, yet has a bitter taste. The 'K' in its name stands or potassium. Acesulfame-K is not metabolized by the body. You can cook and bake with it. There are no reported side effects with this sweetener although it may increase insulun secretion, which can cause concern for diabetics. More info here!

Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC) - The acetyl ester of carnitine, ALC acts as an antioxidant, has protective effects in the brain, and stimulates hormone (including testosterone) release.

Aciclovir - a guanine analogue antiviral drug primarily used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infection. It is one of the most commonly-used antiviral drugs, and is marketed under trade names such as Zovirax and Zovir. More info here!

Alanine - An amino acid. BCAAs are used as a source of energy for muscle cells. During prolonged exercise, BCAAs are released from skeletal muscles and their carbon backbones are used as fuel, while their nitrogen portion is used to form another amino acid, Alanine. Alanine is then converted to Glucose by the liver. This form of energy production is called the Alanine-Glucose cycle, and it plays a major role in maintaining the body's blood sugar balance.

Alkaloids - There are marked differences in the influences of alkaloids on animals and humans whereas they appear to be harmless to the plants in which they are found. They often occur in association with an acid. Alkaloids participate in plant metabolism and their degree of presence varies on a daily basis. They appear to have an oxygen regulating influence in plants such that they prevent damage that would arise from over-oxygenation of tissues during higher exposures to light radiation that could overextend photosynthesis and hyperactivity "burn", by reducing the oxygen overload. This would be similar to the concern over reducing free radicals in human health. It is important to note that alkaloids may be biosynthesised from amino acids by the influence of one, some, or many enzymes. In a similar way, hormones are generated within the body. In humans, alkaloids can acts as a stimulant on the CNS (atropine), a depressant on the nerves to the secretory glands and plain muscle (atropine), a sedative (hyoscine) to relieve spasms, carcinogen and mutagen (nicotine, colchicum), anti-tumor (indicine N-oxide), anti-inflammatories (ephedrine), circulatory-respiratory stimulant (nux-vomica), hypertension (rauwolfia), bitter tonics (many), stomach calmers (cinchona), diuretic (cocoa), pesticides and contraception (nicotine, cevadilla, neem). Alkaloids may act like and be stronger than the normally present hormones as when ephedrine, an alkaloid, augments adrenalin, a hormone. Allergies can be symptoms of endocrine (such as the liver) over-reaction, in which the sedative influence of an alkaloid (such as ephedrine) reduces the over-reaction to normal, and the symptoms of histamine defense, normally reduced with adrenaline, are quieted. Failure to understand the over-reaction as a reaction to an illusory reality created by an energy block amplification of reality can confuse one's understanding of the role of the alkaloid, and adrenaline. Toxic doses of alkaloids can lead to constipation, intense pains, paralysis, coma, and death. A simplistic interpretation of their influence is that they tend to slow down and de-energize the nerve signals within and between the brain and the organs, glands, and other tissues. Slowed down too much, they stop or are ineffectual once a threshold of active involvement is passed.

Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) - A sulfur bearing phytonutrient with antioxidant properties; amplifies effects of other antioxidants. It is an insulin potentiator that may be, in some respects, the very best insulin mimicker. An analogy of what ALA does is that if ALA was an individual, he would be the one which yells at the muscle cells to pick up the key, open the door, and help bring in the creatine. ALA is a sulfur bearing compound with antioxidant properties. It plays a role in energy metabolism. ALA amplifies the ability of other antioxidants to combat free redicals and enhance recovery. Also may enhance insulin sensitivity, improving the body's ability to add lean mass and reduce fat.

Amino Acids - Nitrogen-bearing organic acids that are the building blocks of protein. The branched chain amino acids are Leucine, Valine and Isoleucine. Some of the 20 standard proteinogenic amino acids are called essential amino acids because the human body cannot synthesize them from other compounds through chemical reactions, and they therefore must be obtained from food. Histidine and arginine are generally only considered essential in children, because the metabolic pathways that synthesize these amino acids are not fully developed in children.  























(*) Essential only in certain cases

Aside from the twenty standard amino acids and the two special amino acids, selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, there are a vast number of "nonstandard amino acids" which are not incorporated into protein. Examples of nonstandard amino acids include the sulfur-containing taurine and the neurotransmitters GABA and dopamine. Other examples are lanthionine, 2-Aminoisobutyric acid, and dehydroalanine. Nonstandard amino acids often occur in themetabolic pathways for standard amino acids - for example ornithine and citrulline occur in the urea cycle, part of amino acid breakdown. Nonstandard amino acids are usually formed through modifications to standard amino acids. For example, taurine can be formed by the decarboxylation of cysteine, while dopamine is synthesized from tyrosine and hydroxyproline is made by a posttranslational modification of proline (common in collagen).

Amino Acid

3-Letter Code

1-Letter Code










aspartic acid



asparagine or aspartic acid*






glutamic acid






glutamine or glutamic acid*










































A star (*) indicates that either can be chosen.

Anabolic - Metabolic condition in which new molecules are synthesized (growth).

Androstenedione - An androgen (male hormone). Androgens are produced in two sites in the male body - most originate in the testes, but some potent male hormones are produced by the adrenal glands, located just above the kidneys. Androstenedione is a pivotal adrenal steroid that's actually one step closer to being converted to testosterone than DHEA. It raises your testosterone levels and can provide more strength. Androstenedione really does raise testosterone above normal levels and could be hazardous. Side effects include acne, male baldness, and a decrease in 'good' cholesterol, which may lead to heart disease. This supplement might be reclassified as a steroid by the FDA, and it is banned in the NFL, Olympics, and other major sports organizations.

Anthocyanins - have some of the strongest medicinal effects of any plant compounds. Physiologically, they are powerful antioxidants used as viable therapies that support eye and heart health. Some anthocyanins have been shown to be four times as powerful as vitamin E. The berry nectars including grapes (vitis vinifera var), bilberries, and blueberries (vaccinium myrtillus), elderberries (sambucus cerulean), cranberries (vaccinium macrocarpon) and prunes (prunus domestica) are some of the richest sources of anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are most stable in low, acid Ph's. However, these berries have a powerful alkalinizing effect from their minerals and polyphenols. The ultimate test of a nutrient's effect of body pH is the pH of its ash, and when the nectars of these anthocyanin-rich foods are heated to ash, the pH is quite alkaline. Red cabbage, egg plant and apples (malva pumila) are some common foods that contain anthocyanins. An easy way to identify them in your refrigerator is to notice which fruits and vegetables do not spoil quickly. Bilberry nectar is a rich source of anthocyanins. It is also a rich botanical source of iron, magnesium, potassium and copper. It was used as early as the Middle Ages to induce menstruation and as recently as World War II to improve pilots' night vision.

One study showed that anthocyanins have the strongest antioxidant power in the polyphenol family. The study found that the darker a berry's color, the greater its antioxidant power. The amount of anthocyanins varied for different varieties of the same berry and increased in those grown in low or high latitudes. Anthocyanins also have anti-inflammatory properties. They support healthy brain function, the peripheral nervous system, the skin and collagen. Anthocyanins also provide nutritional support for diabetics. They are hypoglycemic agents which lower blood sugar levels and protect both large blood vessels and capillaries from oxidative damage. They prevent oxidative damage in the capillaries of the eye and extremities, the two most common complications of diabetes.

Diabetes is a disease of oxidative stress. The reason diabetics are sensitive to sugar in their food supply is because they cannot balance their sugar metabolism. Sugar is an oxidant and diabetics have too much of it circulating in their blood. Therefore, sugar is a source of oxidative stress. Diabetics deal poorly with blood sugar-induced oxidative stress and are taught to avoid ingesting it. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities of anthocyanins have been proven useful in the fight against high blood sugar. Micro-blood vessel damage from high blood sugar levels causes most of the complications in diabetes. Collagen proteins become linked with sugars, resulting in scarring and blood vessel blockage. Anthocyanins protect fragile tissues from this type of vascular damage. Blood vessel damage can allow large blood-borne molecules to migrate out of the bloodstream and between the cells of surrounding tissues, causing edema and chronic inflammation of the soft tissues of the body. This situation is often painful to diabetics. OPCs promote normal capillary and lymphatic reuptake of metabolic and other blood-borne matter. Retinopathy occurs when the retina scars in its attempt to repair leaking capillaries by plugging the leaks with abnormal proteins. Anthocyanins not only prevent capillaries from leaking in the first place, but they also help clean up the mess when they do.

Antioxidants - Any substances that prevent or impede cell oxidation (destruction) by free radicals, etc.

Arginine - A conditionally essential amino acid with anabolic and immune system supportive effects. It is required for growth, immune function, wound healing and many aspects of protein metabolism. Arginine is necessary for the production of growth hormone. It is also a precursor for nitric oxide, a critical substance that helps regulate the function of cardiovascular, nervous and immune systems and which is essential for muscle growth.Arginine is essential for sperm formation, so it plays a vital role in male fertility.

Ascorbic Acid - Also known as Vitamin C. A water soluble vitamin, and an antioxidant. Your body cannot store Vitamin C, so you must supplement it regularly. It is not resistant to heat, so cooking will destroy it. Vitamin C functions primarily in the formation of collagen, the chief protein substance of your body's framework. It also helps in the production of vital body chemicals. Vitamin C also is a detoxifier (helping cleanse your body of toxins).

Aphrodisiac - includes a wide range of herbs of differing characteristics that often enhance forms of physical reactions while increasing desire in the fantasy of need. They may increase:

Aspartame - An artificial sweetener. Known by the trade name NutraSweet, it is an artificial sweetener. Certain people should avoid products that contain Aspartame. They are people who cannot metabolize the amino acid Phenylalanine, which is an ingredient in aspartame; and people who are suspectable to headaches. It is nearly 200 times sweeter than sugar. Aspartame is produced from the amino acids L-asartic acid and L-phenylalannine. It has been approved for use in certain goods since 1981. Heat causes aspartame to lose its sweetness, therefore, you can't bake with it. Unlike some sweetners, it has no aftertaste. More info here!

Aspirin - Can reduce soreness after a hard workout, or lower your risk of heart disease. Can also reduce your risk for throat or stomach cancer.

ATP (Adenosine Tri-phosphate) - All living things, plants and animals, require a continual supply of energy for all the processes which keep the organism alive. More info here!

B-Complex Vitamins - A group of eleven known vitamins that work together in your body. All play vital roles in the conversion of food into energy. Essential for the normal functioning of the nervous system, and the maintenance of good digestion. Helps promote healthy skin, hair, and eyes. These are water soluble vitamins, which means they cannot be stored by your body and must be replaced every day.

BCAA's (Branch Chain Amino Acids) - Leucine, Valine, and Isoleucine are called "branch chain" aminos due to their molecular structure, and are important essential amino acids well known for their anticatabolic (muscle-saving) benefits. They are called BCAA's because they structurally branch off another chain of atoms instead of forming a line. Studies have shown that BCAA's postively affect skeletal muscle growth, enhance fat loss, help to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit its breakdown, so BCAA's have powerful anabolic and anticatabolic effects on the body. They may also potentiate the release of some anabolic hormones, such as growth hormone. Regular ingestion of BCAA's help to keep the body in a state of postive nitrogen balance. BCAAs are used as a source of energy for muscle cells. During prolonged exercise, BCAAs are released from skeletal muscles and their carbon backbones are used as fuel, while their nitrogen portion is used to form another amino acid, Alanine. Alanine is then converted to Glucose by the liver. This form of energy production is called the Alanine-Glucose cycle, and it plays a major role in maintaining the body's blood sugar balance.

Beta-carotene - A phytonutrient carotenoid with antioxidant and provitamin A activity. In addition to providing the body with a safe source of Vitamin A, beta carotene works with other natural protectors to defend your cells from harmful free radical damage. This is an important micrinutrient in helping the body with metabolic functions, such as recovery from exercise. Beta-Carotene is the plant derived form of Vitamin A, which is important for several bodily functiosn, including eyesight, immune function and even bone growth. Beta-Carotene is nontoxic. Good sources of Beta Carotene include Carrots, Sweet Potatoes, Pumpkins, Cantaloupes, Acricots, Spinach and Broccoli.

Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB) - It is a compound made in the body and a metabolite of the essential amino acid Leucine. Studies have found that HMB has a decrease in stress-induced muscle protein breakdown. Studies also found that HMB may enhance increases in both muscle size and strength when combined with resistance training. There are a number of theories why you may need HMB. The first, is that under stressful conditions, the body may not make enough HMB to satisfy the increased needs of tissues. It could also be that stress may alter enzymes or concentration of certain biochemicals that decrease normal HMB production. Another theory is that HMB may regulated enzymes responsible for muscle tissue breakdown.

Biological Value (BV) - An attempt to measure how efficiently protein us used in the body. Biological Value is derived from providing a measure intake of protein, then noting the nitrogen uptake versus nitrogen excretion. The actual process is much more complicated though. In theory, a BV value of 100 is maximal. Some studies claim they have a higher BV than 100, but they refer to a chemical score, not the biological value such as in the proteins of whey.

Biotin - A vitamin that helps with energy metabolism, fatty acid and nucleic acid synthesis.

Boron - It is a trace mineral. Studies show that Boron helps the body retain minerals, such as Calcium and Magnesium. Large amounts of Boron, over 10 milligrams a day, can be toxic, particularly to the organs that manufacture testosterone. You can find traces of Boron in all the food groups, even in wine, with the greatest concentration is in prunes, raisins, parsley, and almonds. A 1987 study showed that Boron could dramatically increase testosterone levels, however, the study was for postmenopausal women who had testosterone deficiencies. Once their boron-rich diets brought their testosterone levels back up to normal, those levels stabilized, and they didn't get any higher no matter how many more prunes or parsley they ate. It is somewhat unproven that boron can help build muscle mass by increasing your testosterone levels. However, a lack of boron in your diet may have a 'negative' impact on energy utilization.

Bovine cartilage - A source of mucopolysaccharides which have anti-inflamatory and joint protective properties. More info here!

Bovine Colostrum - Usually from cows, a dairy product that has similar properties to human colostrum. Normally, adults cannot absorb colostrum's antobodies and growth factors the way a newborn can. But it still has superior nutritional values which may make it a useful supplement.

Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) - A type of specialized fat that is known to convert fat calories into heat, thereby disspating excess calories.

Buckwheat - A plant native to Asia that has fragrant white flowers and small triangular seeds. The edible seeds are often ground into flour. According to animal studies, buckwheat is better than casein (a milk protein) for promoting muscle growth and body growth and decreasing blood lipids. For persons allergic to wheat gluten, it provides a gluten-free food with uses similar to gains. Roasted buckwheat is known as Kasha. Buckwheat is usually available as flour.

Caffeine - Alkaloid that stimulates alertness and boosts energy. An herbal compound that enhances alertness and fights fatigue. Caffeine increases endurance during prolonged activity by increasing blood epinephrine (adrenaline) levels, thereby allowing fat cells to break down more readily during aerobic activity. Caffeine also makes a muscle contraction more forceful.

Calcium - Most abundant mineral in the body; essential for the formation and repair of bone and teeth, but also essential to nerve transmission, muscle contraction, blood clotting and other metabolic activities as well. Long term calcium deficiency is linked to degenerative bone diseases.

Carbohydrate - There are two basic forms of carbohydrates: Simple & Complex. Simple carbs are usually devoid of fiber and include such foods as refined sugars, fruit juices, and apple sauce. The problem with simple carbs is that they promote a large insulin surge, which can lead to hypoglycemia. Complex carbs are absorbed more slowly, so they don't cause as great an insulin surge as the simple type. Primary macronutrient source of energy in the body; burned as glucose and stored in muscle as glycogen (excess stored as fat) and includes all sugars (1 gram yields 4 calories).

Carnitine (L-Carnitine) - Non-structural amino acid that transports fatty acids into muscle cells for use as energy fuel. Carnitine is water-soluble and can be made in the body from the amino acids lysine and methionine with the assistance of vitamins C, B6 and Niacin, which act as coenzymes in the process. Carnitine as discovered in meat in 1905, and was once called Vitamin T, because they thought it was a vitamin at first. 98% of te body's carntine exists in the heart and skelatal muscles. Carnitine is synthesized in the liver from Lysiine and Methionine, but half of the body's daily requirement for Carnitine comes from foods sources, including meat, poultry, fish and some diary products. Without supplemental carnitine, some people cannot use fat as energy.

Carnosine - The amino acid carnosine is a natural antioxidant found in high concentrations in the brain, muscle tissue and the lens of the human eye. It is also known to be an antioxidant capable of protecting cell membranes and other cell structures. Carnosine inhibits glycosylation and cross-linking of proteins induced by reactive aldehydes, and is effective in reducing advanced glycation end-products (AGE) formation by competing with proteins for binding with the sugars. Many additional functions for carnosine are as immunomodulator, neurotransmitter, metal ion chelator, and wound healing agent. It was demonstrated that carnosine was effective in overcoming muscle fatigue, lowering blood pressure, reducing stress and hyperactivity and inducing sleep. Carnosine has a protective effect, preserving nerve cells from damage and death, making it a promising treatment for patients with stroke. Carnosine was also shown to be effective in the treatment of senile cataracts. Along with carnosine, lipoic acid has been shown to control the formation of AGE and reduce protein damage from glycation in both humans and animals.

Casein - Primary protein found in milk, along with whey protein. Casein is the insoluble protein fraction of milk. It is absorbed more slowly than whey and provides the body with amino acids over an extended period in comparison to whey protein, the soluble protein fraction in milk.

Catabolic - Metabolic condition in which muscle is broken down and energy is released.

Catabolism - Protein breakdown in muscles.

Cat's Claw - An herb used in South American folk medicine for its anti-inflamatory and immune system protective properties. More info here!

Chick Embroyo Extract - This type of extract contains short amino acid chains called oligopeptides, plus additional essential amino acids and trace elements (iron, copper, cobalt, selenium, and zinc). The peptides in the extract possess both cell stimulating and protective properties. The peptides indicated that they were activating growth factor receptors in them. The extract works as a general tonic and stimulates the adrenal gland, normalizing its function. It also acts as a mild stimulant and an antidepressant; and it improves libido, erectile function, sparmatogenesis and other aspects of sexual function in men and women. It also improves sleep and promotes weight loss.

Chitosan - Chitosan is a natural product extracted from Chitin (by products of Crustacean shell extracts). Chitosan and chitin are waste products of the crab and shrimp industry. It can be used to inhibit fat digestion and as a drug delivery transport agent. It also has been used as a cholesterol lowering substance. Chitosan is marketed as a 'fat blocker'. It appears that it can impede fat absorption by 'gelling' with fat in the small intestine. Side effect of Chitosan is that since it is made from sea food, some people have allergic responses to it. Also, you need a high concentration of Chitosan for it to 'gel' with fat.

Choline - One of the elements that is found in lecithin. Considered important in the transmission of nerve impulses. A B-fatty acid involved in the production of neurotransmitters in the brain that regulate mood, appetite, behavior, memory, etc. Most effective in phosphatidyl choline form. It is beleived to help concentration and alertness. Studies indicate that it improves cognitive performance. Blood levels of choline decrease during prolonged exercise.

Cholesterol - A fat-like sterol used by the body for production of hormones (including testosterone), vitamin D and cell membranes; high levels in the blood stream are a marker for heart disease.

Chondroitin - Chondroitin is extracted from bovine tracheas or shark cartilage. It is a major component of connective tissue, especially cartilage. Chondroitin can stimulate repair of cartilage cells and also black enzymes that damage joints. More info here!

Chromium / Chrimium Picolinate - Chromium increases the efficiency of the hormone insulin, which the pancreas releases after you eat carbohydrates or protein. Chromium acts to make the receptor of muscle cells more sensitive to insulin (which allows you to store more carbohydrates in the muscle cells as glycogen rather than in fat cells as lipids). Insulin also helps muscles use amino acids for building protein rather than breaking them down. Chromium can promote modest muscular gains and decreases in bodyfat (thus helps build lean mass). Exercise increases the excretion rate of chromium.

Chrysin - An anti-aromatase, which means it stops a lot of excess testosterone from converting to estrogen. Also, a compound with significant antiviral activity - especially in relation to the HIV. A an effect on the benzodiazapene receptors (which have a calming, antistress effect). It is possible that Chrysin taken in the correct dosage could reduce cortisol secretion due to the body's sensing less stress. Chrysin may act as an antiestrogen by inhibiting aromatase activity, limiting the conversion of testosterone to estrogen.

Coenzyme Q10 - This antioxidant is shown to have heart protective and energy productive properties. COQ10 is involved in cellular energy production. Several studies have reported improved endurance after taking CoQ10. It is considered one of the best antioxidants. It may be an ergogenic aid because it plays a pivital role in a cellular process that leads to ATP synthesis and is known as the electron transport system.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) - CLA occurs naturally in whole milk and red meat. A collective term used to designate a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of the essential fat linoleic acid. It is actually a fat, derived from linoleic acid (an essential fatty acid). Studies have shown that CLA can increase lean body mass and decrease fat, inhibit the growth of tumors and enhance immune function. CLA is found naturally in beef, cheese and whole milk.

Copper - Active in the storage and release of iron to form hemoglobin for red blood cells.

Cortisol - A catabolic hormone that is released and increases in response to stress when the body is subjected to trauma such as intense exercises, including weight training. Excess cortisol is known to increase catabolism (protein breakdown in muscles). Cortisol leads to muscle breakdown through promoting a release of muscle amino acids for transport to the liver, where the amino acids are coverted into glucose.

Co-Q10 - Co-Q10, coenzyme Q-10, or ubiquinone, is found in the cells' mitochondria, and has two known functions. Co-Q10 transports electrons in energy production and is also an antioxidant that protects against free radicals formed during metabolism. Co-Q10 decreases in some tissues, with age. The heart, brain and muscles, which are high in mitochondria, may be most affected by the falling levels of Co-Q10. Lipid peroxides--markers of oxidative stress--are reduced in the blood of Co-Q10 supplemented people and antioxidant vitamins-E and -C are increased.

Creatine (monohydrate) - A muscle fuel that is extracted naturally from meat and fish, or synthesized in the lab. Once it is in the muscles, creatine combines with phosphorous to make Creatine Phosphate (CP), a high powered chemical that rebuilds the muscles ultimate energy source, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). CP powers your muscles for high intensity exercise for short periods only, consequently, athletes who compete in power and sprint event will have an advantage if they take supplemental creatine. More CP in the muscle cell translates into a greater resistance to fatigue. Also, CP helps with the transfer of energy in the muscle cells, thus speeding up the action, which may enhance performances that are aerobically taxing. Reports says people who take creatine supplements may recover from intense activity faster and experience less postexercise muscle soreness. Creatine is a naturally occurring compound in the muscle tissue and when converted in the muscle tissue to phosphocreatine during exercise can provide sudden bursts of energy. Insufficient amounts of phosphocreatine could result in a fatigued feeling in the muscle. Creatine Monohydrate is a synthesized metabolite that is the powerful energizer providing instant energy and strength with better endurance and helps to maintain optimal levels of ATP production during intense exercise. Creatine monohydrate is better absorbed because it is more stable, resulting in higher concentration of available creatine. Creatine & ATP. ATP is the molecule that releases the energy for contraction of muscles, the breakdown and synthesis of proteins and all other reactions requiring energy. In short, ATP is the energy molecule powering all of our movements. By giving off its energy through its high energy phosphate bond, ATP is reduced to ADP. The problem is that the amount of ATP that is stored in our cells is limited. Depending on the intensity of the activity, ATP supplies can be used up by converting to ADP within seconds. So how do athletes run or workout for long periods. We can do that because there are three way to replenish ATP.

Creatine (titrate) - Titrated creatine is less expensive than effervescent creatine, but has the same total solubality and absorbability. The result is free-ionized, soluble creatine. Titrated creatine acheives the process by titrating, or changing, the pH of the water when it's stirred in. The altered pH solution enables more than 95 percents of the creatine to go into solution, so you get dissolved creatine.

Diuretic - Any agent or compound that increases the flow of urine from the body. They can range from herbal teas to powerful drugs that flush out electrolytes and water. They are classed based on the location and mechanism of action in the kidneys. Athletes use diuretics to eliminate water weight to further emphasize their muscular definitions. Most bodybuilding and fitness federations have banned the use of diurectics and test for them.

DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) - A hormone made by the adrenal glands used by the body to make male (androgen) and female (estrogen) hormones; possible positive effects on mood and energy on older individuals (40+) whose production of DHEA has declined. As been referred to as the 'Fountain of Youth' hormone bacause it declines rapidly as we age, and supplementation with this hormone reverses many of the ravages associated with aging. Studies show that men with the highest DHEA levels have better cardiovascular health.

DMAE (Dimethyl-amino-ethanol) - Supplement reported to minimize buildup of lipofuscin (age spots) in the brain. Plays a participatory role in acetycholine synthesis. DMAE has been shown to stimulate vivid, lucid dreams, suggesting possible sleep pattern enhancement. More info here!

ECA Stack - A thermagenic supplement blend of Ephedra, Caffeine and Aspirin that is popular among fitness and bodybuilding cultures. It is said that these three ingredients give a synergistic effect together which give better results than any one on its own.

Echincea - Herb with immune protective properties, shown to have some benefit protecting against colds and flu. It can be used as a preventive measure to protect the body against the natural stress the immune system suffers in heavy training.

Egg protein - Source of protein with high Protein Efficiency Ratio, usually in egg white form (albumin) when used in protein powder to avoid cholesterol in egg yolk. Egg protein is the standard by which all other proteins are measured because of its very high ration of indispensable amino acids (also called essential amino acids because they must be supplied to the body from food or supplements) to dispensable amino acids.

Ephedra / Ephedrine - The active ingredient in the herb Ephedra sinica (E. girardiana, E. equisatina, E. dystachia); this chemical has been proven to be both a powerful energizer and weight loss aid. Ephedrine is a powerful thermogenic agent: It releases norepinephrine, a brain neurotransmitter than exerts a stimulating effect. This same neurotransmitter signals the sympathetic nervous system, which is called into play during a 'fight or flight' response. Body temperature rises and promotes the breakdown of fat cells for fuel. Use ephedrine for short periods only. Cycling ephedrine can help you avoid side effects as well as improve results of your hard training. Ephedrine, taken with caffeine, can increase each other's ability to induce lipolysis (fat burning). Ephedrine acts at your body's nerve junctions, changing the release and activity of norepinephrine as well as acting on your beta-2 adrenergic receptors.

Ergogenic aids - Any nutrients that improve athletic performance.

Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) - They include Linoleic Acid, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Monounsaturated fats. These are considered the 'good' fats. They cannot be made by the body and must be supplied by our diet. You need approxiamately 2% of your daily calories as EFA's. By consuming plenty of EFAs, you supply your body with the appropriate precursors to form cell membranes and regulatory eicosanoids.

Ethyl apovincaminate - is also known as as "Vinpocetine," and is derived from the periwinkle plant, Vinpocetine, a derivative of Vincamine, increases cerebral blood flow, increases the rate at which brain cells produce Adenosine TriPhosphate (ATP), creating more cellular energy, and increases the use of oxygen and glucose, feeding the brain cells. It also has the unusual effect of raising the level of serotonin in the brain, increasing the general brain information processing rate. It is commonly cited as an aid to improving memory. Literature suggests Vinpocetine may act to improve conditions related to insufficient blood flow to the brain including vertigo and Meniere's syndrome, difficulty in sleeping, mood changes and depression. Vinpocetine may also alleviate speech impairment, improve short-term memory, hearing, assist in the condition of multiple infarct dementia, increase resistance of neurons to lack of oxygen. Several brain boosters (ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, phosphatidylserine, to name just a few) are known to help restore failing memory, but Vinpocetine dramatically enhances memory even in healthy individuals. It also acts as a potent neuroprotective supplement. Strong clinical evidence exists that, in addition to its brain boosting properties, Vinpocetine's ability to improve blood flow also helps protect brain and heart function, prevents macular degeneration (a leading cause of blindness in the elderly), and improves hearing and inner ear problems, and even lessens depression and fatigue. More Info here!

Fat - Macronutrient that is a source for long term energy and energy storage (as adipose tissue); necessary for absorption and transport of fat-soluble vitamins and constituant of hormones and cell membranes. One gram of fat equals nine calories. There are 455 grams in one pound. So nine calories times 455 grams equals 4,025 calories per pound of fat. So, technically, you need to lose 4,025 calories to lose one pound of fat.

Fiber - The more insoluble the fiber is (fiber that does not dissolve in water), the better it is for you. Insoluble fiber reduces the risk of colon cancer and high blood pressure. Fruit fiber seems to be more beneficial then vegetable or cereal fibers, probably because fruits are loaded with Pectin, an insoluble fiber. As a rule, the higher the insolubility, the fewer the calories. Corn bran is the best, followed by wheat bran, and then oat bran. It is best to eat fiber after you work out to avoid intestinal discomfort.

Flavonoids (Flavinoids) - are a group of plant pigments that are largely responsible for the colours of many fruits and flowers. Many of the medicinal actions of foods, juices, herbs, and bee pollen are directly related to their flavonoid

Flaxseed Oil - Flaxseed is an excellent source of the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (an EFA). Supplementing with flaxseed oil has been shown to lower cholesterol, decrease heart disease, increase satiety and improve cell integrity. More info here!

Free Radicals - Free radicals are highly reactive molecules in the body which can destroy tissues by oxidizing cell membrane lipids and damaging DNA, the body's genetic material. Free redicals are produced through the body's normal process of metabolizing the air we breath and the food we eat, as well as exposure to tabacco smoke, excess sunlight and environmental pollutants. Antioxidants work in the body by neutralizing free radicals before the can do significant harm.

Gaba (gamma aminobutyric acid) - is an important amino acid which functions as the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA's high concentration in the hypothalamus suggests this amino acid plays a significant role in hypothalamic-pituitary function. The hypothalamus is a region of the posterior section of the brain and is the regulating center for visceral (instinctive) functions such as sleep cycles, body temperature, and the activity of the pituitary gland. Supplemental GABA can be useful in producing a state of relaxation. GABA works in partnership with a derivative of Vitamin B-6, to cross from the axons to the dendrites through the synaptic cleft, in response to an electrical signal in the neuron and inhibits message transmission. This helps control the nerve cells from firing too fast, which would overload the system. The action of GABA decreases epileptic seizures and muscle spasms by inhibiting electrical signals in this manner. Studies have shown that the site of action in the brain of benzodiazepams, including Valium, is directly coupled to the brain receptor for GABA. GABA itself can be taken instead of a tranquilizer to calm the body without the fear of addiction. Taken with the B-vitamins niacinamide and inositol, it prevents anxiety messages from reaching the motor centers of the brain by filling its receptor site.

Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL) - A related product to GHB (Gamma hydroxybutyrate).

Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) - GHB is a simple carbohydrate fond naturally in every cell of the human body. GHB is both a metabolite of and a precursor to an amino acid called GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid). The FDA has labeled GHB has a 'date-rape' drug, and wants to ban it from the market. GHB itself does not cause a person to remain conscious, engage in sex and then forget what they did. The problems occur when you take GHB with high levels of alcohol, since both alcohol and GHB are metabolized by the same enzyme in the body.

Garcinia Cambogia - Fruit from India that contains Hydroxicitric Acid (-HCA), an organic acid influencing carbohydrate and fat metabolism

Garlic - Garlic may lower blood cholesterol levels, lower elevated blood pressure and offer a hedge against the onset of several types of cancer. Some studies show that garlic has enhanced fat breakdown coupled with an increasd amount of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a type of specialized fat that is known to convert fat calories into heat, thereby disspating excess calories. More info here!

Genistein - A compound thought to protect you against cancer. It is found in soy based food products. It surpresses the production of stress proteins in cells, proteins that otherwise help cancer cells survive destruction by the immune system.

Ginkgo Biloba - A herb shown to enhance mental accuity. Some research has shown that Ginkgo Biloba increases cerebral blood flow to the brain. Also, boost brain levels of adenosine triphosphate and scavenge free radicals. Combined with ginger, gingko has also been shown too reduce stress induced anxiety. More info here!

Ginseng - A family of herbs with adaptogenic properties affecting energy. There are different ginsengs (Asian, American, Siberian). Some ginsengs have shown to have mental enhancing effects. Studies show that an individual ginseng component called ginsenoside Rb acts favorably in reversing memory deficits by increasing he secretion of acetychilone. Studies also suggest that ginseng extract improved learning and retention processes. More info here!

Glucomannan - A fiber derived from the Amorphophallus Konjac root, a perennial plant of the Araceae family. The root is low in protein, lipids (fats), calories and vitamins, but, because of its glucomannan content, it can provide many tangible bodybuilding and health advantages. Glucomannan can help mitigate insulin response to high glycemic corbohydrates, which might allow athletes to add variety to low carb diets and still accrue the benefits of the regimens. Glucomannan may also help remove fat from the body.

Glucosamine - Organic compound found in cartilage and joint fluid; relieves joint pain and may help in healing some joint injuries. Glucosamine is a provider of the building blocks of joints.

Glucose (monosaccharide) - Type of sugar that circulates in the bloodstream, thus the term 'blood glucose levels' or 'blood sugar'. All carbohydrates, whether simple or complex, are eventually converted to glucose in the body. Glycogen is many units of glucose together.

Glucose Tolerance Factor (GTF) - GTF is thought to be a complex of chromium, nicotinic acid, and the amino acids glycine, cystein and glutamic acid (these aminos are components of gluthathione). GTF is thought to be synthesize by the liver. In many people, chromium is likely the deficient substrate for GTF formation. GTF is found in foods such as organ meats, whole gains, cheese, mushrooms and brewer's yeast.

Glutamine - An amino acid. Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in muscle tissue. Studies are beginning to show that having extra glutamine in your body may be important to maximize muscle growth, by increasing growth hormone levels. Glutamine also is important to maintain proper health, and is shown to have anabolic and anticatabolic properties. During intense training, the signal for muscle breakdown (which is a bad thing) may be the release of skeletal muscle glutamine. That means that each time you train, your muscles release glutamine which in part triggers a catabolic state (a catabolic state is synonymous with muscle breakdown). By proving Glutamine, documented clinical studies have shown that Glutamine will have a significant impact on maintaining a positive nitrogen balance which is essential to muscular development and recovery.

Glycemic Index - The glycemic Index (GI) measures only the rise in blood sugar elicited by various foods and drinks. It is not like an index of factors like nutrient density or vitamin or fiber content. The GI can help you if you want to avoid a spike in blood sugar, and insulin. If measures how much a food affects your blood sugar.

Glycerin - Glycerin is a trihydric alcohol that is derived from animal fats and plants emollients. It is used in many protein bars to give the bar a soft texture and to make it easy to chew. Glycerin yields 4.32 calories per gram. Glycerin is a crystalline, viscous liquid formed when fat molecules split. It is half as sweet as sugar and is used to keep bars moist and to plasticize other foods such as fudge, gum, geltin, etc. The big question is if glycerin is a carb or is it a new 'category'. The reason that glycerin is not listed as a carbohydrate by some manufacturers is that glycerin does not effect blood glucose or insulin levels. However, the FDA states that glycerin is to be listed as a carbohydrate; thus the controversy.

Glycogen - It is a term for many units of glucose strung together. The body stores glycogen in two areas, the liver and the muscles. Only about 5 grams, or 20 calories worth of glucose flows in the blood. Liver stores about 75 to 100 grams, or 300 to 400 calories; an hour of aerobics can burn up half the liver glycogen content. The muscles store around 360 grams, or 1,440 calories. Carbohydrate loading is one technique used to increase muscle glycogen content. By not consuming enough carbohydrates, you deplete both liver and muscle glycogen reserves. While complex carbs are considered to be more desirable than simple carbs, simple carbs are more efficient after a workout for replacing muscle glycogen. Simple carbs are absorbed faster, and promote a greater insulin output. A carbohydrate drink with at least 50 grams of carb will do the trick.

Glycogen (Muscle) - Muscle glycogen is extremely important for bodybuilding, since it's the primary fuel that powers anaerobic training, such as lifting weights. Glycogen that's stored in a muscle is available only to that muscle because muscles lack a certain enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase, that's needed to release glucose into the blood. Muscles can absorb glucose without insulin, which why exercise helps prevent diabetes.

Glycogen (Liver) - Liver glycogen is a fuel reserve that helps maintain blood glucose levels. This is important because the brain relies on a constant supply of glucose to function properly.

Grape Seed Extract - Source of proanthocyanadins, an important antioxidant. More info here!

Green Tea - Perhaps more notable, recent research has shown that green tea reduces the risk of developing stomach cancer by 50% and esophageal cancer by 6-%. No one knows for sure, but scientists think that polyphenols in green tea protect health by combating free radicals.

The main constituents of green tea are polyphenols, caffeien, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds, it also contains small amounts of carbohydrates and lipids. Also, green tea contains polyphenols, theanine, and catechins. The greater the theanine content in green tea, the higher the price.

Growth Hormone - Known in the medical community as somatotropin. It is a powerful anabolic hormone that affects all systems of the body and plays an important role in muscle growth. It is a peptite hormone, which is composed of many amino acids (191 of them) linked together. It is rapidly metabolized by the liver and has a half-life in the blood of approxiamately 17 to 45 minutes. Because of this, detecting GH in a drug screen is very hard.

Guanine - Guanine, organic base of the purine family. It was reported (1846) to be in the guano of birds; later (1879-84) it was established as one of the major constituents of nucleic acids . The accepted structure of the guanine molecule was proposed in 1875, and the compound was first synthesized in 1900. When combined with the sugar ribose in a glycosidic linkage, guanine forms a derivative called guanosine (a nucleoside), which in turn can be phosphorylated with from one to three phosphoric acid groups, yielding the three nucleotides GMP (guanosine monophosphate), GDP (guanosine diphosphate), and GTP (guanosine triphosphate). Analogous nucleosides and nucleotides are formed from guanine and deoxyribose. The nucleotide derivatives of guanine perform important functions in cellular metabolism. GTP acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism and in the biosynthesis of proteins; it can readily donate one of its phosphate groups to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an extremely important intermediate in the transfer of chemical energy in living systems. GTP is the source of the guanosine found in RNA and deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) is the source of the deoxyguanosine in DNA, and thus guanine is intimately involved in the preservation and transfer of genetic information. Guanine is said to account for the iridescence of fish scales and the white, shiny appearance of the skin of many amphibians and reptiles.

Guarana - Source of caffeine. Comes from the seed of a herb found in the Amazon, long popular among Brazilians for its stimulatory effects. More info here!

Guggulsterone - Guggulsterone is a ketosteroid specifically called Z-Guggulsterone. It's effect on the thyroid is that it increases the metabolic rate via stimulation of the tyroid gland. Studies indicate that Guggulsterone can result in higher levels of T4 (Thyroxine), one of the two main thyroid hormones. .

Hydroxicitric Acid (HCA) - Also known as Citrimax. Acid found in the fruit Garcinia Cambogia that affects fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Studies have shown it reduces the conversion of carbs into bodyfat. HCA competitively inhibits an enzyme kown as ATP-Citrate lyase (the major enzyme responsible for the production of fatty acid). When HCA blocks the production of fatty acids, a buildup of citrate occurs, which may cause the cell to inhibit glycolysis (breakdown of stored sugars). More info here!

HMB - See 'Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate'

HDL - High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol. Protects against cardiovascular disease. HDLs help to shuttle cholesterol out of the blood and back to the liver, where it's degraded into bile that then can be excreted from the body.

Hypoglycemia - A term meaning low blood sugar. It's a set of symptoms that point to irregularities in the way the body handles glucose, the sugar that circulates in the blood. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include sweating, trembling, anxiety, fast heartbeat, headache, hunger, weakness, mental confusion, and on occasion, seizures and coma. However, it occurs rarely because the body has a lot of backup systems preventing it.

IGF-1 - Stands for Insulin-like growth factor. An important hormone for muscle growth. Naturally produced by the body in response to exercise and is necessary for normal physiological functioning. Excess of IGF-1 may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and prostate cancer.

Inositol - An active factor in the B-Complex vitamins which help convert food to energy. With Choline, Inositol is active in the metabolism of fats.

Insulin - An anabolic hormone that's supposed to take the sugar and traansport it into the muscle. Insulin also promotes increased amino acid entry into muscle and increases muscle protein synthesis. Too much insulin can cause sugar to bypass muscle, and be stored as bodyfat.

Inzitol - Inzitol is the trade name for Pinitol, a form ogff sugar than researchers are studying for use in insulin-deficient conditions, such as diabetes mellitus type 1. Taking Inzitol can show an increase in both glucose uptake and glycogen storange.

Ipriflavone - One of many flavonoids, ipriflavone, formally known as 7-isopropoxyisoflavone, is synthesized from the soy isoflavone daidzein. It has anabolic effects that are especially pronounced in bone.

Iron - Mineral essential to oxygen transport in blood (via hemoglobin and myoglobin), enzyme production and immune support. A deficiency can cause the most common form of anemia. Teenagers need additional iron during their years of maximum growth; women need extra iron during the years they are menstruating and during pregnancy.

Isoflavones - Phytonutrient antioxidants, including genisteine and diadzein, that act as estrogen receptor protectors (minimize PMS, menopause side effects) and lower cholesterol levels.

Isoleucine - One of the three branched chain amino acids. They are called BCAA's because they structurally branch off another chain of atoms instead of forming a line. Studies have shown that BCAA's help to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit its breakdown, so BCAA's have powerful anabolic and anticatabolic effects on the body. They may also potentiate the release of some anabolic hormones, such as growth hormone. Regular ingestion of BCAA's help to keep the body in a state of postive nitrogen balance. In this state, your body much more readily builds muscle and burns fat. Studies have shown that athletes taking extra BCAA's have shown a loss of more bodyfat than those not taking BCAA's.

Kombucha - A tea made from a fungus / yeast fermentation with high nutrient level used by people for immune protection, increase energy, and other postive effects. Sometimes called a Kombucha mushroom. It is two life forms, a yeast culture and bacteria living in symbiosis, from Manchuria. More info here!

Kynoselen - Also called Kyno, it is a veterinary drug, not an anabolic steroid. It is used to treat abnormal muscle conditions in animals. Some athletes use it to increase muscle hardness. Main ingredient in Kynoselen is AMP, a substance formed during the process of creating energy. Concerns for athletes is that life threatening heart problems can arise with its use.

Lactoferrin - It is a glycoprotein, which means its structure includes a carbohydrate attached to a simple protein. The single protein in lactoferrin contains 703 amino acids in a precise configuration. It appars to offer protectve benefits against a wide range of fungi and viruses.

Lactose - Sugar in milk which many people, especially adults, have an intollerance to (indigestion) to to a lack of the enzyme lactasein their bodies.

Lecithin - Dry powder source of phospholipids high in B-fatty acids.

Leptin - This protein was been portrayed as the way to a cure for obesity. Leptin was first described as an apiodocyte - derived signaling factor, which, after interaction with its receptors, induced a complex response, including control of bodyweight and energy expenditure. It could be quite a fat burner. Research shows that people who used high doses of leptin for six months lost weight, most of it bodyfat.

Leucine - One of the three branched chain amino acids. They are called BCAA's because they structurally branch off another chain of atoms instead of forming a line. Studies have shown that BCAA's help to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit its breakdown, so BCAA's have powerful anabolic and anticatabolic effects on the body. They may also potentiate the release of some anabolic hormones, such as growth hormone. Regular ingestion of BCAA's help to keep the body in a state of postive nitrogen balance. In this state, your body much more readily builds muscle and burns fat. Studies have shown that athletes taking extra BCAA's have shown a loss of more bodyfat than those not taking BCAA's. Leucine appears to be the most important BCAA for athletes, as it can affect various anabolic hormones, and have an effect on preventing protein degradation. HMB is a metabolite of Leucine. Some experts have suggested that if you do not have Leucine in your body, you will not have muscle growth.

Linoleic Acid - An essential fatty acid (EFA) that your body cannot make itself. It is found in polyunsaturated oils such as safflower, sunflower, walnut oil, etc. This is considered a type of 'good' fat. You need approxiamately 2% of your daily calories as EFA's.

Lipoic Acid - Lipoic acid is needed for mitochondrial function and is also an antioxidant. It is made in our cells and participates as a co-factor in the conversion of carbohydrates to energy. As an antioxidant, lipoic acid is unusual because it is both water and fat soluble. It can eliminate free radicals in the water compartment of the cell, similar to vitamin C, and protect lipids against oxidation, similar to vitamin E. Alpha lipoic acid helps break down sugars so that energy can be produced from them through cellular respiration. Alpha lipoic acid plays a truly central role in antioxidant defense. It is an extraordinarily broad-spectrum antioxidant, able to quench a wide range of free radicals in both aqueous (water) and lipid (fat) domains. Moreover, it has the remarkable ability to recycle several other important antioxidants including vitamins C and E, glutathione and coenzyme Q-10, as well as itself! For these reasons, alpha lipoic acid is called the universal antioxidant. Lipoic acid is the only antioxidant that can boost the level of intracellular glutathione, a cellular antioxidant of tremendous importance. Besides being the body's primary water-soluble antioxidant and a major detoxification agent, glutathione is essential for the functioning of the immune system. People with chronic illnesses such as AIDS, cancer and autoimmune diseases generally have very low levels of glutathione. White blood cells are particularly sensitive to changes in glutathione levels, and even subtle changes may have profound effects on the immune response. Extensive research on lipoic acid has shown several beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Much of the beneficial effect of lipoic acid is attributed to its ability to increase glutathione, chelate metals (such as iron and copper), quench diverse free radicals, and recycle antioxidants.

Lipotropic nutrients - Substances that prevent or curtail the buildup of fat in the liver, such as B-fatty acids and methionine.

L- Methionine is classified as an essential amino acid and therefore must be required by the diet. L-methionine is an amino acid that contains sulphur in the chemical structure and is minimally soluble in water. The molecular formula is C5H11NO2S, and its molecular weight is 149.21 daltons. L-methionine is also known as (S)-2-amino-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(methylthio)butyric acid, alpha-amino-gamma-methylmercaptobutyric acid, and gamma-methyl-thio-alpha-aminobutyric acid. It has been found to slow down the aging process in the cells and aids in the production of protein. Sulphur is needed for healthy skin, bones, organs, and hair. Sulphur also helps to transport important elements such as selenium and zinc around the body, and, in compound form, has been found to protect the body against radiation. Every day, we use up or excrete about 100 mg of sulphur. Besides sulphur being in methionine it is also found in the amino acids cysteine, cystine, and taurine. More Info here!

Lutein - A carotenoid phytonutrient with antioxidant properties especially important to eye protection.

Lycopene - Most powerful of the carotenoid antioxidants; shown to be beneficial in prostate protection and treatment. The carotenoid lycopene provides stronger antioxidant protection against certain types of free radicals, and may protect against certain types of cancer better than any nutrient presently known. Lycopene makes up about half the carotenes in human serum; yet, very little research has been done on it. Lycopene is what gives tomatoes, watermelons, grapefruits and papaya their red color. A pigment synthesized by some plants and animals to protect them from the sun, lycopene evolved as a weapon against certain free radicals. Humans get most of their lycopene from tomatoes--by far the richest source; yet, tomato products offer a more concentrated source of lycopene than the fresh fruit itself. Since lycopene is a nutrient that can stand the heat, cooked tomato products, such as tomato paste, provide more of it than fresh tomatoes. Lycopene's cancer protection is in part due to its antioxidant protection. But some studies show that it may also modulate immunity, inhibit angiogenesis and affect hormones. Lycopene works better in combination with lutein, another carotenoid which if found mostly in spinach and corn. (associated with maintenance of the macula). Just as lutein is concentrated in the macula, lycopene is concentrated in certain organs. The prostate gland is one of these organs. Inadequate supplies of vitamin-C and sulfur molecules such as N-acetylcysteine can adversely affect Lycopene. Lycopene is carried in the blood by the low density lipoprotein molecule (LDL) that also carries cholesterol. Drugs that lower cholesterol can drastically interfere with the carotenes. The fake fat Olestra is another chemical that depletes the carotenoids and vitamin A. Other parts of the body besides the prostate that accumulate lycopene are the adrenal glands, liver, colon and testes. Aging reduces levels of lycopene in the blood. Lycopene appears to be protective against cancer of the digestive tract.

Maltitol - This is a sugar alcohol that is used as a sweetener. It has half the caloric value of sucrose because it is not completely absorbed by the body.

Maltodextrin - A long chain of glucose molecules (carbohydrates) that provides sustained energy without sharply increasing insulin levels. Essentially a chain of molecules of the simple sugar glucose linked together. There are an average of seven glucose molecules linked together to form a maltodextrin molecule.

Manganese - Needed for normal tendon and bone structure.

Magnesium - Mineral necessary for energy metabolism, protein and fat synthesis, neuromuscular transmission, amonia scavenging and binding of calcium to teeth, etc. Aids in bone growth, and is necessary for proper functioning of nerves and muscles.

Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) - MCT's are technically fats, but they have very unique properties. The difference between them and other fats lies in their molecular structure. MCT's are shorter than other fats, which allows them to be burned rather quickly by the body for energy. MCT's enter the mitochondria, the powerhouse of a cell, without assistance, and do not require the usual transport mechanism. MCT's are an attractive supplement because of their calorie density. They have 9 calories per gram, like fats, but lack the disposition to be stored as fat. All fats are not created equal. Research shows that animals maintain a lower bodyfat when they use MCT's in place of traditional fats. They can help you increase lean muscle tissue, decrease excess bodyfat and fuel precompetition workouts.

Melatonin - Hormone produced by the pineal gland that regulates circadian rhythms; helps induce sleep and acts as an antioxidant.

Methionine - A sulfur bearing essential amino acid important in hair, nail and muscle production, liver maintenance (lipotropic effects), and production of creatine and other aminos.

Methoxyflavone - Also called 5-methyl-7-methoxyisoflavone. A synthetic isoflavone that is highly anabolic, yet free of any androgenic effects. It halts the muscle wasting, and increases lean tissue growth. It increases calcium phosphorous, potassium and nutrogen retition to a significant degree.

Milk Thistle - An herbal liver cleanser popular with athletes because certain steroids are known to negatively impact the liver. Silymarin (the active ingredient of milk thistle) has been found to play a role in human regeneration of liver cells after damaged from alcohol, or liver disease, as a means for promoting healing, and as a strong antoixidant. It also has been known to decrease elevated liver enzymes induced by certain types of drugs. More info here!

Mineral - Inorganic substances necessary for good health as an ingrediant or a catalyst.

Mineral (Chelated) - A chelated mineral is generally attached to a protein transporter molecule with the intent of improved transport across the gut to the blood stream. Although some of the minerals are well absorbed in this manner it does not necessarily always indicative of the best form for absorption.

Mono-unsaturated Fats - An essential fatty acid (EFA) that seems to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. This is considered a type of 'good' fat. Olive oil, and canola oil have this in them. You need approxiamately 2% of your daily calories as EFA's.

N-Acetyl Cysteine - A stable form of the essential amino acid L-cysteine. Cysteine is a precursor for glutathione, an important antioxidant in the body. Cysteine also serves as a major sulfur source for many body components.

NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) - Also known as coenzyme 1, is the coenzymatic form of vitamin B3. NADH is involved in the production of energy in every cell. It supports healthly neurotransmitter functions.

Niacin (Vitamn B-3) - A vitamin Important in carbohydrate metabolism, formation of testosterone and other hormones, formation of red blood cells and maintaining the integrity of all cells. Helps body utilize protein, fats, and carbohydrates. Necessary for a healthy nervous system and digestive system. It also lowers elevated blood cholesterol levels when taken in large amounts of more than 1,000 milligrams a day.

Norandrostenedione - Naturally occuring prohormone that works in a manner similar to Androstenedione, however, results can be much better, and side effects less.

Norepinephrine (INN) or noradrenaline (BAN) is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. The natural stereoisomer is L-(-)-(R)-norepinephrine. It is released from the medulla of the adrenal glands as a hormone into the blood, but it is also a neurotransmitter in the nervous system where it is released from noradrenergic neurons during synaptic transmission. As a stress hormone, it affects parts of the human brain where attention and impulsivity are controlled. Along with epinephrine, this compound affects the fight-or-flight response, activating the sympathetic nervous system to directly increase heart rate, release energy from glucose and glycogen, and increase muscle readiness.

Oil (Canola) - Canola Oil is a good choice for athletes seeking an oil low in saturated far. It has a fat profile of eight grams monounsaturated, four grams polysaturated, and only one gram of saturated fat per tablespoon. Monounsaturated fat contains Omega-3 fatty acids. At high temperatures, canola oil releases free radicals and loses its Omega-3 benefits.

Olestra - A fake fat substitute. This will save you calories, but may also deplete your body of nutrients. If you use this product, or products containing this, make sure you good your 2% dose of essential fatty acids (EFA).

Omega-3 Fatty Acids - An essential fatty acid (EFA) that seems to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. This is considered a type of 'good' fat. Sources include fish, salmon, mackerel, sardines. You need approxiamately 2% of your daily calories as EFA's.

Ornithine - A non-essential, non-structural amino acid made from Arginine shown to influence growth hormone release: most anabolic when combined with alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG).

Paba (Para Aminobenzoic Acid) - Important for the formation of red blood cells. Aids in the conversion of protein into energy. Necessary for healthy skin, and hair pigmentation.

Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B-5) - A vitamin which supports carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism; hemoglobin synthesis. Helps release energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fat. Needed to support a variety of body functions, including the maintenance of a healthy digestive system.

Pectin - A soluble fiber found in the skins of fruits (apples and peaches) and vegetables. One study found that eating Pectin will make you feel full longer. Researchers speculate that Pectin may slow digestin and keep food in your stomach longer.

Phaseolus Vulgaris - An ingredient which has been shown to effectively prevent the body from absorbing up to 35 grams of unwanted starch per meal. It is found in white kidney beans.

Phenylalanine - An amino acid, one of the main ingredients to enhance brain function. It has also been used to relieve stress. More info here!

Phosphatidylserine (PS) - A phospholid. An ingredient which may block cortisol (a hormone which breaks down muscle cells into fuel). Alsom reported to increase levels of glucose, the brain's energy source.

Phosphorus - Mineral that is structural component of all cells (including muscle); necessary for energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and growth / mainteneance of al tissues.

Phytochemicals - Phytochemicals are plant chemicals that are neither vitamins nor minerals; yet, they have health-enhancing effects: phytochemicals help protect against cancer, cardiovascular disease and dementia, and aid in the prevention of cataracts and macular degeneration. Many phytochemicals are antioxidants, including carotenoids, and flavonoids. Among the flavonoids, isoflavonoids in soy and other legumes have estrogen-like effects. Some phytochemicals, such as isothiocyanates in the cabbage family and organo sulfur compounds in garlic, block the carcinogenic action of chemical carcinogens by helping the body dispose of them.

Phytoestrogens - include isoflavones, lignans, phytosterols, and saponins. They produce mild estrogenic (immune defense) activity. These may influence miscarriage, foetal development and health. Phytoestrogens can reduce the symptoms of menopause: night sweats, hot flashes, vaginal dryness, insomnia, nervous sensitivity, anxiety, dry skin, incontinence, headache, depression, breast tenderness.

Polyphenols - Polyphenols are potent and wide ranging in their physiological prperties. They are antioxidants, cancer preventatives, cavity and gingivitis preventatives, prebiotics and even internal deodorizers. Polyphenols are a broad family of naturally-occurring physiologically-active nutrients. They can be divided into four subgroups. The first group is called bioflavonoids. The next two groups are close cousins of bioflavonoids and are called anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (OPCs). These are found primarily in the berry nectars. The last group is called xanthones. They are primarily found in Gentain and Chinese skullcap nectars. People who consume more vegetables and fruit show significantly superior health compared to those eating the least, especially in regard to lower rates of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Now the reasons for this are emerging. While eating a wide variety of plant foods is highly recommended, due to the synergy of various phytochemicals, we are discovering that certain compounds are particularly valuable, with blueberries and bilberries at the top of the list. Spinach and kale contain the powerful carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, as well as the sulfur-containing antioxidant, lipoic acid--nutrients that help protect us against macular degeneration and cataracts, and against cardiovascular disease and other aging-related disorders as well. Eating spinach, kale, and other green leafy vegetables at least twice a week is highly recommended. However, consuming half a cup or more of blueberries every day in addition to all the vegetables and fruit can double your antioxidant intake from food.

Potassium - Mineral that helps maintain cellular integrity and water balance, nerve transmission and energy metabolism; necessary for muscle contraction. Potassium helps to lower blood pressure, lower risk of stroke, maintain muscle balance and prevent muscle cramping. Potassium helps to reduce the amount of sodium in the body.

Pregnenolone - Pregnenolone is a precursor for all other steroid hormones naturally present in the body. It is converted directly into DHEA, which in turn converts to testosterone, estrogens, cortisol and aldosterone. It is this same set of successive conversions that makes human life possible. More info here!

Proanthocyanadins - Potent antioxidant phytonutrient found in some pine needles (pycnogenol) and grape seeds and skins (grape seed extract), it is especially synergistic with vitamin C making them more powerful antioxidants together than by themselves. Proanthocyanidins are another family of polyphenols that chemists call condensed tannins or oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs). OPCs offer antioxidant protection specifically against heart disease and cancer, two major risk factors for death. OPCs owe their current popularity to French scientists that were successful in finding uses for the waste produced by the paper pulp and winemaking industries. These scientists studied Maritime Pine bark and grape seeds and found that the OPCs they contained were perfect nutrients to build and maintain high energy levels. Some of the richest sources of OPCs are the nectars of grapes, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, prunes and apples. Grape nectar has the richest source of OPCs of all the botanicals in their seeds and peels. OPCs are important antioxidants by themselves. Grape OPCs have been shown to protect many different types of body tissues better than vitamin-C, vitamin-E or beta-carotene. OPCs are also synergists that enhance the effects of other antioxidants. Grape OPCs in particular show this antioxidant recycling and potentiating ability. The cell membrane protecting ability of vitamin-E is improved in the presence of grape OPCs. OPCs can protect our cellular tissues from premature aging with special emphasis on protecting the cardiovascular system. OPCs have also been shown to be effective against several cancer-causing agents. Grape OPCs are more effective at positively affecting the response of human mouth cells to the free-radical damage caused by smokeless tobacco than either vitamin-C or vitamin-E alone or even when both of these vitamins are combined.

Protein - Primary macronutrient for growth and maintenance of our body's structural parts (including muscle). Cannot be stored, so must be replenished through diet. (1 gram=4 calories).

Purslane - It is a weed that is edible, and sometimes put on salads, mostly in Europe. It is loaded with linolenic acid, and omega-3 fatty acid that may help reduce the risk of heart attack, and improve the health of cell membranes in the eyes and brain. It is also an excellent source of Vitamin E, providing 6 times as much as spinach.

Pycnogenol - Source of proanthocyanadins.

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B-6) - A vitamin which supports glycogen and nitrogen metabolism; production and transport of amino acids; production and maintenance of red blood cells (hemoglobin) Essential for the body's utilization of protein. Needed for the production of red blood cells, nerve tissues, and antibodies. Women taking oral contraceptives have lower levels of B-6.

Pyruvate - A key energy metabolite for the breakdown of fuel (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, etc.) to energy in our bodies, pyruvate can give us increased energy, assist in burning fat as fuel, and have anticatabolic effects (such as producing alanine). Pyruvate acid is alpha - ketopropionic acid. Studies have shown that pyruvate can help decrease fatigue, and increase vigor with only six grams per day.

The human body breaks down carbohydrates for energy though a process called glycolysis. As these sugars and starches are metabolized, pyruvate (pyruvic acid) is produced, which readily enters the mitochondria of cells to create energy fueling the muscles and other parts of the body.

Quercetin - This bioflavonoid occurs in many plant foods. Quercitin has a synergistic effect with ephedrine and caffeine, increasing and prolonging their properties.

Retinol (Vitamin A) - A vitamin with antioxidant properties, important for eye protection and bone growth; protein and hormone synthesis (including GH and testosterone); supports tissue maintenance. Helps reduce susceptibility to infection. Essential for healthy skin, good blood, strong bones and teeth, kidneys, bladder, lungs and membranes.

Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2) - A vitamin which helps with energy production and amino acid production. Helps body obtain energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fats. Helps maintain good vision and healthy skin.

Ribose - Ribose is a simple sugar that is extremely important in many processes in the body. Ribose is found in all living cells. It is the backbone of genetic material, and it is the starting point for production of ATP. Ribose effectively increases ATP and TAN (Total Adenine Nucleotide) recovery, while impriving performance in heart and muscle cells. Ribose also fortifies muscle ATP but through a different pathway than creatine. Ribose also bolsters muscle recovery after your train. Ribose promotes more effcient salvage pathway, thus allowing better ATP recycling and consequent increased muscular recovery after training. If the body does not use the salvage pathway, when ribose is insufficient, it must make ATP from scratch.

Saccharin - An artificial sweetener. It is nearly 700 times sweeter than sugar, yet leaves an aftertaste. It is not metabolized by the human body. It is useful in diabetic diets in which the patient must lower sugar intake. The FDA has listed saccharin as an 'anticipated' human carcinogen. This means that in certain individuals, the sweetener may increase the risk of cancer.

Salatrim - This is a reduced calorie fat that has only five calories per gram, as opposed to nine normally.

SAM-e (S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine) - SAM-e is a naturally occurring molecule in virtually all body tissues and fluids. It is fundamentally important in a number of biochemical reactions involving enzymatic transmethylation, contributing to the synthesis, activation and metabolism of such compounds as hormones, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, proteins, phospholipids and certain drugs. SAMe is an active lipotrope form of Methionine, and is a cofactor in a number of critical biochemical reactions and is found in almost every tissue of the body. SAMe has been used in clinical studies to treat depression, schizophrenia, demyelination diseases, liver disease, dementia, arthritis, peripheral neuropthy and other conditions. Several studies have confirmed that SAMe is up to15% more effective in the treatment of depression than traditional pharmaceutical anti-depressants. Clinical effects and uses of SAME:

Saw Palmetto - Herb shown to have protective properties for the liver. It is also shown that Saw Palmetto reduces the size of epithelial tissue in the prostate, especially in the transitional zone. More info here!

Selenium - Trace mineral with potent antioxidant effects; component in sulfur bearing amino acid production and fetal development during pregnancy; recent clinical evidence of cancer preventive properties. You can get it from rice, wheats and meats. Selenium helps prevent the formation of free radicals, and can possobly help prevent forms of cancer.

Shark Cartilage - See Bovine cartilage.

Sodium - Also known as Salt. Regulates body fluid volume, transports amino acids to cells and plays a role in muscle contraction and nerve transmission. Sodium is an important mineral found in our bones, in the fluids surrounding our cells and in the cardiovascular system. Sodium, with potassium, assists nerve stimulation and regulated water balance. It is also involved in carbohydrate absorption. The average person requires a minimum of one tenth of a teaspoon of salt a day. Any athlete who sweats needs more. A teaspoon a day of salt does not cause problems, nor does eating fresh foods high in natural salt such as fish, carrots, beets and poultry. Easting processed and junk foods, can lead to high, potentially dangerous levels of sodium intake.

Somatotropin - Known in the medical community as GH or Growth Hormone. It is a powerful anabolic hormone that affects all systems of the body and plays an important role in muscle growth. It is a peptite hormone, which is composed of many amino acids (191 of them) linked togethers. It is rapidly metabolized by the liver and has a half-life in the blood of approxiamately 17 to 45 minutes. Because of this, detecting GH in a drug screen is very hard.

Soy Protein - Primary vegetable source of protein found in protein powders; lower in nitrogen retention and BCAA's than whey and egg, but higher in arginine and glutamine and contains isoflavones with antioxidant properties.

St. John's Wort - Scientific name: Hypericum Performatum. A plant herb that is used to relieve mild depressive symptoms, sleep disorder, and anxiety, although probably not effective against serious depression. In large doses, it may be unsafe as it can make the skin and eyes extra sensitive to light. More info here!

Steroids - Steroids are synthetic derivatives of the hormone testosterone that allow the user to gain muscle mass and strength rapidly. In addition to their muscle building effects, anabolic steroids increase the oxidation rate of fat, thus giving the user a more ripped appearance.

Stevia - A herb from Brazil and Paraguay that is a good replacement for sugar and artificial sweeteners. You can also bake with it. More info here!

Stevioside - An artificial sweetener. Extracted from the herb Stevia. It is 300 times sweeter than sugar, but has a strong aftertaste.

Sucralose - An artificial sweetener. Approved by the FDA in 1998. It is 600 times sweeter than table sugar, it is is made from a process that begins with regular sugar. You can bake with it. Sucralose was discovered in 1976. Sucrolose is derived from sugar through a patented, multistep processes that selectively substitutes three choline atoms for three hydrogen oxygen groups on the sugar molecule. The tightly bound chlorine atoms create a molecular structure that is esceptionally stable and is approx 600 times sweeter than sugar. The body does not recognize it as sugar or another carbohydrate. The sucralose molecule passes through the body unchanged, it is not metabolized and is eliminated after consumption. Sucrolose has no calories. The acceptable daily intake for sucralose is 5 mg / kg of body weight per day. More info here!

Sugar Alcohols - This group of sweeteners includes Mannitol, Sorbitol and Xylitol. Although found in fruit, they are commercially synthesized and not extracted from natural sources. Sugar alchohols provide a reduced glycemic response (no steep hikes in blood sugar). Sugar alcohols are absorbed slowly, but incompletely. This can cause diarrhea in some people.

Synthol - An oil based solution that swells the muscle region it is injected into giving the muscle a "swollen" appearance without detail or hardness.

Tannins - Tannin-containing remedies will precipitate protein and have been used for the protection of inflammed tissues. They act as antidiarrhoeals and have been employed as antidotes in poisoning by heavy metals, alkaloids, and glycosides. In toxic concentrations, tannic acid can cause central necrosis (death) of the liver). Some may have anti-tumor influence while some may have anti-virus and other anti-parasitic properties. Tannins are soluble in water, dilute alkalis, alcohol, glycerol and acetone. Solutions precipitate heavy metals (including mercury, lead, ...) alkaloids, glycosides and gelatin. The term "tannin" was first applied to plant extracts which when combined with the protein in hides prevented their putrefaction and influenced their conversion to the leather of 'tanned' hides. Most true tannins have a molecular weight of 1000 to 5000. Many tannins are glycosides. Their properties result from the accumulation within a moderately-sized molecule of a substantial number of phenolic groups.  Tannins are of wide occurrence in plants and are usually found in greatest quantity in dead or dying cells. They exert an inhibitory effect on many enzymes due to protein precipitation, providing a protective function. They tend to have astringent characteristics. The presence of tannins in a compound are incompatible with many alkaloids, which they precipitate.

Taurine - An essential amino acid. Plays a role in cell-membrane stabilization, calcium balance, growth modulation and the regulation of osmotic pressure in the body (water transfer). It is also a key component of bile, which is necessary for fat digestion, absorption of fat-soluable vitamins and control of cholesterol levels. A link has been shown between deficiency in this amino and retinal dysfunction (eye problems).

Testosterone - Studies says that even minute amounts of it can juice both the male and female sex drives and slightly larger amounts will speed the muscle building process.

Theanine - A unique amino acid found in green teas. The greater the theanine content in green tea, the higher the price. Theanine increases GABA levels in the brain and counteracts high and even toxic doses of stimulants, such as caffeine. Sleep time is improved, spontaneous physical hyperactivity is decreased and toxicity reactions are markedly reduced. Theanine can help ofset the length and intensity of the stimulatory effects of alpha and beta-agonists and caffeine. It goes beyond helping you relax and sleep well for one night. Be reversing the excitatory state quickly and safely and promoting relaxation and restoration of your brain chemisty, you are in effect priming your body for stimulation once again the following day. That should allow you not only to grow, but to get even beter results from your supplements.

Thermogenesis - A fancy word meaning heat-producing. To make more heat, your body has to burn more calories. Thermogenesis occurs with training, with food consumption, and with the use of selected herbs.

Thiamin (Vitamin B-1) - A vitamin which maintains energy levels, supports brain function (memory). Aids in digestion. Necessary for metabolism of sugar and starch to provide energy. Maintains a healthy nervous system. Alcohol can cause deficiencies of this vitamin and all the B-complex vitamins.

Tribulus Terrestris - A herb for sexual deficiency or as a mild aphrodisiac. It may increase libido and serum testosterone.

Trimethylglycine (TMG) - is what is called a methylation agent, composed of three methyl groups attached to one molecule of the amino acid glycine. It produces unique biological effects including lowering general homocysteine levels in the blood. Homecysteine is thought to contribute toward strokes and cardiovascular disease. TMG also contributes one of its methyl groups to DNA, potentially reducing DNA aging and errant DNA replication processes. In order for TMG to be effective in the body, it needs to have the synergistic co-factor of Vitamin B12. Trimethylglycine also produces other compounds in the body, such as SAMe (S- Adenosylmethionine.

Tryptophan - An essential amino acid, known for its calming and mood enhancing effectcs. It is a naturally occuring ingredient in turkey that mellows you out and makes you want to take a nap after the Thanksgiving feast. Tryptophan can also be called 5-HTP (5-hydrotryptophan) which is make with a slightly different compound that regular tryptophan.

Tyrosine - A conditionally essential amino acid, tyrosine can elevate mood and is a precursor of the brain neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. More info here!

Usnic Acid - A herbal compound currently being used as an antifungal and antobiotic agent. It elevate body temperature, which can be a potent thermogenic but also dangerous. It works like DNP, which was a popular fat loss drug in the 1930s. Usnic acid shows that it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation.

Valine - One of the three branched chain amino acids. They are called BCAA's because they structurally branch off another chain of atoms instead of forming a line. Studies have shown that BCAA's help to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit its breakdown, so BCAA's have powerful anabolic and anticatabolic effects on the body. They may also potentiate the release of some anabolic hormones, such as growth hormone. Regular ingestion of BCAA's help to keep the body in a state of postive nitrogen balance. In this state, your body much more readily builds muscle and burns fat. Studies have shown that athletes taking extra BCAA's have shown a loss of more bodyfat than those not taking BCAA's.

Vanadyl Sulfate - Source of mineral vanadium; helps optimize glycogen storage to yield more energy. Vanadyl is supposed to help you attain a little more muscle and inhibit fat storage by controlling insulin release. In theory, Vanadyl works inside the muscle cells by bringing carbohydrates into the muscle without the assistance of insulin. If there is less insulin, there is less chance of carbohydrates being converted to stored bodyfat.

Vitamins - Complex organic molecules essential for biochemical transformations necessary for proper metabolism and disease protection. Some popular vitamins are:

Whey protein - Dairy source of protein (other than cassein), known for high levels of BCAA's and high nitrogen retention. Made from milk curd, whey protein is the Rolls Royce of proteins because it has a superior amino acid composition (including high levels of leucine, arguably the most important branched chain amino acid), superior biological value (meaning that more of what you eat gets digested and into your system), is very low in lactose (a milk sugar that most adults have difficulty digesting).

Willow Bark - White willow bark is a source of salicin, a chemical relative of asparin. The effects of willow bark are milk pain inhibition, and increased blood flow to the skin and greater heat loss.

Xanthones - are close cousins to the polyphenol family and have strong antioxidant effects on the nervous system. They are found in several botanical tonics including St. Johns wort, and mangosteen, but the richest source of xanthones is gentian root nectar. The xanthones in gentian root include genistein, gentisin and several methoxyxanthones. Xanthones are among the bitterest compounds known. However, their mood-enhancing properties invoke some of the most agreeable, delightful feelings known. This is of great benefit to those who suffer from depression and obesity, acting to reduce appetites and obsessions. Gentain is known to delay stomach emptying and to trigger the release of cholecystokinin (CCK). This action then produces a series of hormonal reactions that result in satiety, a feeling of fullness and well-being triggered by dopamine release in the pleasure centers of the brain. Besides mood enhancement, xanthones are also useful in treating metabolic syndrome X, type-2 diabetes, lowering blood sugar and reducing insulin resistance. Xanthones have a common healing heritage with polyphenols, being both antiviral and anti-inflammatory.

Yohimbe - From the bark of an African tree, Yohimbe is a popular herb percieved as a stimulant and aphrodisiac. Yohimbe contains yohimbine, an alkaloid similar to caffeine in it's energizing effects.

Zinc - Mineral important as a cofactor in energy metabolism, amino acid and protein synthesis; Antioxidant effects to protect the immune system. Essential for growth, tissue repair, and sexual development. Plays an important role in healing. Since animal proteins are the best sources, vegetarians are often deficient in zinc.

ZMA - Zinc Magnesium Aspartate - This compound has been found to increase muscle strength.


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