Aromatherapy Fragrance

Essential Oil and Perfume Ingredients

Essential oils are the fragrant and therapeutic essences distilled from herbs, flowers, leaves and bark. Each essential oil has unique therapeutic properties which have been documented by use throughout history. For centuries essential oils have been considered the most therapeutic and rejuvenating of all botanical extracts and are highly concentrated, regenerating, oxygenating and contain hormones, vitamins, and antiseptics that work on many levels. They are used in aromatherapy diffusers, aromatherapy lamps, blends; fragrances and perfumes, washes; rinses and baths, massages and inhalations.

Caution must be used though as many plants and herbs can be either benificial or harmful in their natural state. In the distillation of natural essential oils any biocides (including pesticides, herbicides, or fungicides) that have been applied while the plant is growing may be concentrated into the essential oil making the oil toxic. Unless the essential oil is distilled from a certified organic origin, it may be dangerous.  Extreme care must be shown in the handling and use in all stages of preparations and processes of creating medicines and medicinal products from plants and herbs. Once taken beyond their environmental conditions and concentrated they are no longer considered natural in their effects untill they are once again diluted close to their original natural conditions! The making of perfumes and aromatherapeutic oils entails working with concentrated oils and plant products and must be handeled by professionals. Improper use of these products can result in medical conditions such as photo-sensitivity, skin irritations, nausea, headaches and considered toxic in extreme concentrated amounts!

Ingredients Index

Materials derived from animals:

Perfumes must contain 15% fixative in order to retain their scent. Angelica, calamus, orris, patchouli, rose, vetiver, and musk are all available in the oil form and are excellent perfume fixatives. If you cannot obtain fixatives in the oil form, an alcohol extract can be made from the dry material. Ideally, the fixative is combined with the oil or extract since it lends a scent of its own.

Table 1 - Non-animal sources - Plants and materials

  • Amber
  • Anise
  • Anjelica
  • Balsam
  • Basil
  • Bay Leaf
  • Bayberry
  • Benzoin
  • Bergamot
  • Birch
  • Black Currant Bud
  • Boronia
  • Broom
  • Buchu
  • Cardamom
  • Carnation
  • Cassie
  • Cassis(Black Currant Bud)
  • Cedarwood
  • Chamomile
  • Cinnamon
  • Clary Sage
  • Clove
  • Coriander
  • Costus
  • Coumarin
  • Cumin
  • Cyclamen
  • Eucalyptus
  • Fenugreek
  • Frangipani
  • Frankincense
  • Galbanum
  • Gardenia
  • Geranium
  • Ginger
  • Grapefruit
  • Honeysuckle
  • Hyacinth
  • Incense
  • Iris
  • Jasmine
  • Jonquil
  • Juniper Berries
  • Labdanum
  • Lavender
  • Leather
  • Lemon
  • Lilac
  • Lily of the Valley
  • Magnolia
  • Mandarin
  • Mimosa
  • Moss
  • Myrrh
  • Myrtle
  • Narcissus
  • Neroli
  • Nutmeg
  • Oakmoss
  • Olibanum(Frankincense)
  • Opopanax
  • Orange
  • Orris
  • Osmanthus
  • Patchouli
  • Pepper
  • Petitgrain
  • Pine
  • Rose
  • Rosemary
  • Rosewood
  • Sage
  • Sandalwood
  • Styrax
  • Sweet Pea
  • Tagetes
  • Thyme
  • Tonka Bean
  • Tuberose
  • Vanilla
  • Vanillin
  • Vetiver
  • Violet
  • Ylang-Ylang


Table 2 - Aldehydes - Organic Chemicals found in perfumes!

These are only a few of the organic chemicals found in many commercial grade perfumes that have a variety of different scents from florals to woody, and are often used as top notes. They are used to aid the fragrance in its lasting ability.

Caution - 884 toxic substances were identified in a list (partial) of 2,983 chemicals used in the fragrance industry: "Many of these substances are capable of causing cancer, birth defects, central nervous system disorders, breathing and allergic reactions and Multiple Chemical Sensitivities." (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health report.). Neurotoxins: At Home and the Workplace, Report by the Committee on Science & Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Sept. 16, 1986. (Report 99-827)

ACETONE (in: cologne, dishwashing liquid and detergent, nail enamel remover)

  • Caution - On EPA, RCRA, CERCLA Hazardous Waste lists. "Inhalation can cause dryness of the mouth and throat; dizziness, nausea, incoordination, slurred speech, drowsiness, and, in severe exposures, coma." "Acts primarily as a central nervous system (CNS) depressant."

BENZALDEHYDE (in: perfume, cologne, hairspray, laundry bleach, deodorants, detergent, vaseline lotion, shaving cream, shampoo, bar soap, dishwasher detergent)

  • Caution - Narcotic. Sensitizer. "Local anesthetic, CNS depressant"... "irritation to the mouth, throat, eyes, skin, lungs, and GI tract, causing nausea and abdominal pain." "May cause kidney damage." "Do not use with contact lenses."

BENZYL ACETATE (in: perfume, cologne, shampoo, fabric softener, stickup air freshener, dishwashing liquid and detergent, soap, hairspray, bleach, after shave, deodorants)

  • Caution - Carcinogenic (linked to pancreatic cancer); "From vapors: irritating to eyes and respiratory passages, exciting cough." "In mice: hyperanemia of the lungs." "Can be absorbed through the skin causing systemic effects." "Do not flush to sewer."

BENZYL ALCOHOL (in: perfume, cologne, soap, shampoo, nail enamel remover, air freshener, laundry bleach and detergent, vaseline lotion, deodorants, fabric softener)

  • Caution - "irritating to the upper respiratory tract" ..."headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drop in blood pressure, CNS depression, and death in severe cases due to respiratory failure."

CAMPHOR (in: perfume, shaving cream, nail enamel, fabric softener, dishwasher detergent, nail color, stickup air freshener)

  • Caution - "local irritant and CNS stimulant" ..."readily absorbed through body tissues" ..."irritation of eyes, nose and throat" ..."dizziness, confusion, nausea, twitching muscles and convulsions" "Avoid inhalation of vapors."

ETHANOL (in: perfume, hairspray, shampoo, fabric softener, dishwashing liquid and detergent, laundry detergent, shaving cream, soap, vaseline lotion, air fresheners, nail color and remover, paint and varnish remover)

  • Caution - On EPA Hazardous Waste list; symptoms: "...fatigue; irritating to eyes and upper respiratory tract even in low concentrations..." "Inhalation of ethanol vapors can have effects similar to those characteristic of ingestion. These include an initial stimulatory effect followed by drowsiness, impaired vision, ataxia, stupor..." Causes CNS disorder.

ETHYL ACETATE (in: after shave, cologne, perfume, shampoo, nail color, nail enamel remover, fabric softener, dishwashing liquid)

  • Caution - Narcotic. On EPA Hazardous Waste list; "...irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract" ..."may cause headache and narcosis (stupor)" ..."defatting effect on skin and may cause drying and cracking" ..."may cause anemia with leukocytosis and damage to liver and kidneys" "Wash thoroughly after handling."

LIMONENE (in: perfume, cologne, disinfectant spray, bar soap, shaving cream, deodorants, nail color and remover, fabric softener, dishwashing liquid, air fresheners, after shave, bleach, paint and varnish remover)

  • Caution - Carcinogenic. "Prevent its contact with skin or eyes because it is an irritant and sensitizer." "Always wash thoroughly after using this material and before eating, drinking, ...applying cosmetics. Do not inhale limonene vapor."

LINALOOL (in: perfume, cologne, bar soap, shampoo, hand lotion, nail enamel remover, hairspray, laundry detergent, dishwashing liquid, vaseline lotion, air fresheners, bleach powder, fabric softener, shaving cream, after shave, solid deodorant)

  • Caution - Narcotic. ..."respiratory disturbances" ... "Attracts bees." "In animal tests: ataxic gait, reduced spontaneous motor activity and depression ... development of respiratory disturbances leading to death." ..."depressed frog-heart activity." Causes CNS disorder.

METHYLENE CHLORIDE (in: shampoo, cologne, paint and varnish remover)

  • Caution - Banned by the FDA in 1988! No enforcement possible due to trade secret laws protecting chemical fragrance industry. On EPA, RCRA, CERCLA Hazardous Waste lists. "Carcinogenic" ..."Absorbed, stored in body fat, it metabolizes to carbon monoxide, reducing oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood." "Headache, giddiness, stupor, irritability, fatigue, tingling in the limbs." Causes CNS disorder.

a-PINENE (in: bar and liquid soap, cologne, perfume, shaving cream, deodorants, dishwashing liquid, air freshener)

  • Caution - Sensitizer (damaging to the immune system).

g-TERPINENE (in: cologne, perfume, soap, shaving cream, deodorant, air freshener)

  • Caution - "Causes asthma and CNS disorders."

a-TERPINEOL (in: perfume, cologne, laundry detergent, bleach powder, laundry bleach, fabric softener, stickup air freshener, vaseline lotion, cologne, soap, hairspray, after shave, roll-on deodorant)

  • Caution - ..."highly irritating to mucous membranes"... "Aspiration into the lungs can produce pneumonitis or even fatal edema." Can also cause "excitement, ataxia (loss of muscular coordination), hypothermia, CNS and respiratory depression, and headache." "Prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact."


Table 3- Plants, Fruits, and Plant materials; Actions and Cautions

Allspice (fruit) - pimenta officinalis (cuba, india, jamaica, mexico, north america).This oil's aroma resembles a mixture of pepper, clove and cinnamon.

  • Actions: (stimulating, vitalizing)
  • Caution:- may irritate the skin and mucous membranes
  • Blends well with: frankencense, geranium, ginger, lavender, lemon, patchouli, orange, ylang ylang bridge: top - middle; middle - base .

Almond, bitter (fruit) - prunus armeniaca (north america). crisp scent.

  • Actions: (sense enhancing, strengthening)
  • Caution:- avoid use in sun. skin irritant. avoid during pregnancy
  • Blends well with: - - .

Ambrette (seed) - abelmoschus moschatus (france). woodsy scent; aphrodisiac.

  • Actions: (balancing, calming)
  • Blends well with: frankincense, neroli, olibanum, rose, sandalwood .

Amyris (wood) - amyris balsamifera (west indies). woodsy scent.

  • Actions: (grounding, energizing. toning, balancing)
  • Blends well with: anise, cedarwood, citronella, lavender, palmarosa .

Angelica (seed, root) - angelica archangelica (belgium, china, egypt, france, germany, holland, india, russia, spain). musky scent; aphrodisiac.

  • Actions: (anchoring, restoring, strengthening, warming)
  • Caution:- phototoxic, avoid use in sun. avoid use during pregnancy
  • Blends well with: - - .

Anise (seed pod) - pimenella anisum (central america, china, india, indonesia, italy, morocco, south america, spain). a warm, spicy/sweet, licorice-like aroma; deodorant. anise solidifies, or freezes at 59 f, this is a criterion value of anise. during cold weather months the anise may become solid during shipping. do not be alarmed; this is actually a normal occurrence. if crystallization has occurred, it is your assurance of good value anise. if the anise has crystallized, warm the oil until it is liquefied and shake.

  • Actions: (cheering, balancing, energizing, toning)
  • Caution:- slight dermal toxicity - avoid during pregnancy
  • blends well with: amyris, bay, caraway, cardamom, cedarwood, coriander, fennel, galbanum, mandarin, petitgrain, rosewood .

Armoise / aka: mugwort (whole plant) - artemisia vulgaris; alba (china, france, germany, hungary, india, japan, morocco). aromatic, camphorous, fresh, minty scent.

  • Actions: (energizing. toning, balancing, stimulating)
  • Caution:- may irritate skin. avoid during pregnancy
  • Blends well with: cedar leaf, cedarwood, clary sage, lavender, muguet, patchouli, rosemary, sage, violet

Balsam peru (bark) - myroxylon pereirae (el salvador). sweet, vanilla-like, woodsy scent. exotic aroma, imparts a rich, earthy scent to perfumes.

  • Actions: (anchoring, strengthening)
  • Caution:- may irritate skin. avoid use with high blood pressure
  • Blends well with: cinnamon, clove, patchouli, sandalwood .

Basil, sweet (herb-whole plant) - ocimum basilicum (bulgaria, commores, europe, egypt, france, madagascar, north america, seychelles, vietnam). warm, licorice-like, spicy, herbal scent; deodorant.

  • Actions: (cheering, clarifying, energizing, invigorating, refreshing, soothing, strengthening, toning, uplifting, warming)
  • Caution:- may irritate skin. avoid use if pregnant, with high blood pressure, if prone to seizures, with history of estrogen-dependent cancer
  • Blends well with: bergamot, citronella, clary sage, frankincense, geranium, hyssop, lavender, mandarin, marjoram, neroli, orange, rosemary, tangerine, verbena, violet bridge: top - middle .

Bay, laurel (leaf) - laurus nobilis (france). light, crisp, spicy, sweet aroma; aphrodisiac.

  • Actions: (calming, energizing, relaxing, stimulating, uplifting, warming)
  • Blends well with: anise, carnation, cedarwood, clove, eucalyptus, lime, nutmeg, rose, violet bridge: middle - base .

Bay rum (leaf) - pimenta racemosa (jamaica, puerto rico, south america, west indies). light, crisp, spicy, sweet aroma; aphrodisiac. amazingly similar to bay laurel but more robust.

  • Actions: (calming, energizing, relaxing, stimulating, uplifting, warming)
  • Blends well with: anise, carnation, cedarwood, clove, eucalyptus, lime, nutmeg, rose, violet bridge: middle - base .

Benzoin (resin) - benzoin styrax (borneo, china, sumatra, thailand, united arab emirates). sweet, vanilla-like scent; deodorant.

  • Actions: (clarifying, penetrating, rejuvenating, soothing, uplifting, warming)
  • Blends well with: cypress, eucalyptus, lemon, neroli, sandalwood .

Bergamot (peel) - citrus bergamia (italy, morocco). a fresh, sweet citrus smell, (like orange and lemons with floral overtones); deodorant, most notably used in earl grey teas. known for its warm and balancing effect on emotions. extensively used as a fragrance, and for skin care.

  • Actions: (balancing, calming, cheering, encouraging, normalizing, refreshing, stimulating, uplifting)
  • Caution:- photosensitizing. do not be used directly on the skin before exposure to the sun.
  • Blends well with: basil, cedarwood, chamomile, citronella, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, lime, mandarin, marjoram, neroli, patchouli, peppermint, rose, sage, sandalwood, spearmint, tangerine, thyme, vanilla, ylang ylang .

Birch, sweet (bark) - betula lenta (united states). has a stimulating, even arousing effect on the spirits.

  • Caution:- may be toxic if used in large amounts
  • Blends well with: cajeput, chamomile, frankincense, lemon .

Birch, white (bark) - betula alba (germany, holland, russia). a minty, woodsy scent.

  • Actions: (elevating, increases awareness, uplifting)
  • Caution:- slightly toxic. avoid if pregnant or with high blood pressure
  • Blends well with: lime, spearmint, wintergreen .

Black pepper (peppercorn) - piper nigrum (asia, brazil, india, indonesia, madagascar, malaysia). pungent, sharp, spicy, woodsy aroma; aphrodisiac. blends well with rose and other floral oils for the oriental fragrance industry. used extensively in the commercial food industry.

  • Actions: (balancing, energizing, focuses concentration, invigorating, revitalizing, toning, warming)
  • Caution:- skin irritant; dilute well. avoid if using homeopathic remedies. avoid with high blood pressure.
  • Blends well with: basil, bergamot, cypress, floral oils, frankincense, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, marjoram, rose, rosemary, sandalwood bridge: top - middle

Cade (twigs/wood) - juniperous oxycedrus. tar-like smoky aroma.

  • Caution:- skin irritant
  • Blends well with: birch, clove, rosemary, thyme .

Cajeput, rectified (bud/leaf) - melaleuca leucodendron (indonesia, north america). sweet, penetrating, camphorous, medicinal aroma.

  • Actions: (balancing, energizing, soothing, stimulating)
  • Caution:- can be an irritant; dilute well
  • Blends well with: bergamot, clove, lavender, rosewood .

Calendula / aka: marigold (petal) - calendula officinalis (egypt, south africa). it's impossible to distill calendula petals and most of what's available is the infused oil of calendula. the carbon dioxide-extracted calendula total co2 produces a high grade extract .

Camphor, white (leaf) - cinnamonum camphora (borneo, china, japan, sumatra). fresh, sharp, penetrating, pungent scent, mothball-like. it is most commonly inhaled or applied externally in rubs.

  • Actions: (balancing, clarifying, cooling, energizing, stimulating)
  • Caution:- avoided if pregnant, with epilepsy, asthma - do not confuse with the toxic oils of brown camphor, yellow camphor or borneo camphor
  • Blends well with: basil, cajeput, chamomile, frankincense, mandarin, orange, ylang ylang .

Caraway (seed) - carum carvi (asia, europe, holland, north america). minty fragrance.

  • Actions: (enhances alertness, refreshing, stimulating)
  • Caution:- skin irritant. slightly toxic - avoid with high blood pressure
  • Blends well with: anise, cinnamon, eucalyptus, rosemary bridge: top - middle .

Cardamom (seed) - elettaria cardamomum (central america, ceylon, el salvador, guatemala, india). a camphorous, floral, spicy, sweet scent. has many of the same qualities of nutmeg.

  • Actions: (balancing, focuses concentration, revitalizing, sense-enhancing, stimulating, stress-reducing, warming)
  • Caution:- avoid with high blood pressure
  • Blends well with: anise, cedarwood, clove, frankincense, jasmine, neroli, orange, rose, violet, ylang ylang .

Carrot (seed) - daucus carota (france, hungary). sweet, earth aroma; aphrodisiac.

  • Actions: (balancing, nourishing, replenishing, restoring, soothing, stimulating)
  • Caution:- avoid if pregnant. overuse can cause nausea
  • Blends well with: bergamot, lavender, lemon, lime, neroli, orange, rosemary .

Cassia (leaf/twig) - cinnamomum cassia (china). cinnamon-like aroma .

Cedarwood, atlas (wood) - cedrus atlantica; deodora; mexicana (algeria, china, east africa, himalayas, lebanon, morocco, north america). rich, camphorous, dry, sweet, woodsy lead pencil-type aroma. aroma improves with age.

  • Actions: (balancing, focusing, grounding, harmonizing, regenerative, relaxing, strengthening, stress-reducing, tension-relieving)
  • Caution:- skin irritant. avoid if pregnant
  • Blends well with: amyris, anise, armoise, bergamot, cardamom, citronella, clary sage, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, ginger, juniper, lavender, marjoram, oakmoss, palmarosa, patchouli, rosemary, vetiver, ylang ylang bridge: middle - base .

Cedarwood (wood) - juniperus virginiana; oregonia (united states). rich, sweet, woody aroma, reminiscent of sandalwood. adds body and warmth to fragrance blends. not considered a true cedarwood as is atlas. often added to wood (or cedar) chests to add cedar scent.

  • Actions: (calming, comforting, strengthening)
  • Blends well with: bergamot, cinnamon, frankincense, hyacinth, neroli, rose, rosemary, violet bridge: middle - base .

Chamomile, german / aka: chamomile blue (flower/leaf) - matricaria chamomilla (england, france, germany, hungary, morocco, russia, south america). sweet, fruity, apple-like fragrance.

  • Actions: (balancing, calming, rejuvenating, relaxing, soothing)
  • Caution:- avoid during first trimester of pregnancy. avoid long term use if history of estrogen-dependent cancer
  • Blends well with: cinnamon, galbanum, lavender, marjoram, patchouli, vetiver, ylang ylang .

Chamomile, roman (flower/leaf) - chamaemelum nobile (belgium, bulgaria, england, france, hungary, north america, yugoslavia). warm, sweet, and fruity (apple-like), woodsy scent. extensively used in cosmetics, soaps, perfumes and hair, massage and bath treatments. cherished for its gentle, relaxing and soothing effects.

  • Actions: (balancing, calming, rejuvenating, relaxing, soothing)
  • Caution:- avoid during first trimester of pregnancy - avoid long term use if history of estrogen-dependent cancer - avoid if allergic to ragweed
  • Blends well with: bergamot, cinnamon, clary sage, cypress, frankincense, galbanum, jasmine, juniper, lavender, marjoram, neroli, rosemary, vetiver, ylang ylang .

Cinnamon (leaf) - cinnamomum zeylanicum (ceylon, india, madagascar, sri lanka). spicy, sharp, sweet, clove-like aroma; aphrodisiac. perfect for making soaps, candles, incense and scenting potpourri's. the oil can also be distilled from the inner bark of the tree. true cinnamon bark is becoming difficult to find in many countries.

  • Actions: (energizing, invigorating, refreshing, stimulating, vitalizing, warming)
  • Caution:- very powerful, should be used with extreme care, skin irritant. avoid with high blood pressure
  • Blends well with: balsam peru, black pepper, caraway, carnation, chamomile, citrus oils, clove, frankincense, geranium, ginger, lavender, nutmeg, orange, rose, rosemary, spice oils, thyme, violet, ylang ylang bridge: middle - base .

Cistus / aka: labdanum (herb-whole plant) - cistus ladaniferus (spain). herbal, woodsy fragrance; aphrodisiac.

  • Actions: (soothing, stimulating, warming)
  • Blends well with: lavender .

Citronella (grass) cymbopogon nardus (ceylon, china, madagascar, south america). fresh, grassy, lemon-like, woodsy aroma; deodorant. its most useful quality seems to be as an insect repellant.

  • Actions: (refreshing, soothing, stimulating, vitalizing)
  • Caution:- use sparingly - skin irritant - avoid if pregnant
  • Blends well with: amyris, basil, bergamot, cedarwood, eucalyptus, galbanum, geranium, lemon, lemongrass, lime, orange, peppermint, pine .

Clary sage (flower/leaf) - salvia sclarea (europe, france, morocco, oregon-usa. russia). brisk, hay-like, herbal, nutty, sweet and spicy scent; aphrodisiac. traditionally used in treating digestive disorders, now most often mixed with other fragrances. noted for warming and ephoric properties.

  • Actions: (balancing, calming, centering, euphoric, relaxing, stress-relieving, tension-reducing, warming)
  • Caution:- avoid if pregnancy, low blood pressure, estrogen-dependent cancer, breast, ovarian or uterine cysts - avoid with alcohol - should never be used by those with epilepsy
  • Blends well with: armoise, basil, bergamot, cardamom, cedarwood, chamomile, clove, coriander, frankincense, geranium, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lime, mandarin, neroli, nutmeg, orange, patchouli, petitgrain, pine, sandalwood, tangerine, violet bridge: top - middle .

Clove bud (bud) - eugenia caryophyllata (east indies, indonesia, madagascar, philippines, west indies). fruity, sweet-spicy, scent.

  • Actions: (energizing, invigorating, sense-enhancing, stimulating, warming)
  • Caution:- skin irritant - avoid if pregnant or high blood pressure
  • Blends well with: allspice, balsam peru, basil, bay, bergamot, cade, cardamom, carnation, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, geranium, ginger, hyssop, lavender, nutmeg, orange, patchouli, ravensara, rose, sandalwood, tea tree, violet, ylang ylang .

Clove leaf (leaf) - syzygium aromaticum. floral, fresh, sweet-spicy, penetrating aroma.

  • Actions: (stimulating, warming, comforting)
  • Blends well with: allspice, balsam peru, basil, bay, bergamot, cade, cardamom, carnation, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, geranium, ginger, hyssop, lavender, nutmeg, orange, patchouli, ravensara, rose, sandalwood, tea tree, violet, ylang ylang .

Coriander (leaf/seed) - coriandrum sativum (france, holland, india, italy, morocco, north america, russia, tunisia). balsamic, slightly pungent, sweet and spicy aroma; aphrodisiac, deodorant.

  • Actions: (balancing, calming, clarifying, energizing, memory-aid, refreshing, relaxing, stimulating, stress-reducing, warming)
  • Caution:- avoid if pregnant, high blood pressure, breast cancer or fibrosis - use in moderation
  • Blends well with: anise, bergamot, clary sage, cypress, frankincense, ginger, jasmine, lemon, neroli, nutmeg, pine, sandalwood bridge: top - middle .

Cumin (seed) - cuminum cyminum (india, mediterranean, morocco, sicily). sharp, spicy scent.

  • Actions: (balancing, revitalizing, stimulating)
  • Caution:- phototoxic, skin irritant
  • Blends well with: - - .

Cypress (leaf/cone/twig) - cupressus sempervirens (france, mediterranean, spain). pleasant, pine-like, spicy, sweet, woodsy aroma; deodorant. cypress is lovely when used as a bath scent and in skin care products.

  • Actions: (anger-soothing, balancing, calming, refreshing, stimulating, stress-reducing, tension-reducing)
  • Caution:- avoid if pregnant, high/low blood pressure, history of estrogen-dependent cancer.
  • Blends well with: benzoin, bergamot, cedarwood, chamomile, coriander, grapefruit, juniper, lavender, lemon, marjoram, myrrh, orange, pine, sandalwood

Dillweed (seed) - anethum graveolens (mediterranean, north america). peppery, pickle-like, spicy, warm scent.

  • Actions: (balancing, clarifying, clearing, reviving, toning)
  • Blends well with: lavender .

Elemi (resin) - canarium luzonicum (france, india, philippines). balsamic, fresh, pungent, spicy, woodsy scent.

  • Actions: (clarifying, cooling, focusing,grounding, rejuvenating, soothing, stimulating, tension-relieving) <
  • Blends well with: galbanum, ginger, juniper, rosemary .

Eucalyptus (leaf/twig) - eucalyptus globulus (australia, china, portugal, spain, tasmania). cool, slightly bitter, and pungent, camphor-like quality; deodorant.

  • Actions: (balancing, cooling, cleansing, encourages sense of well-being, invigorating, stimulating)
  • Caution:- avoid with high blood pressure, epilepsy, or if using homeopathic remedies
  • Blends well with: benzoin, caraway, cedarwood, clary sage, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, marjoram, peppermint, pine, ravensara, rosemary, thyme, vetiver .

Eucalyptus radiata (leaf) - eucalyptus radiata (australia). see eucalyptus above .

Eucalyptus smithii (leaf) - eucalyptus smithii (china). see eucalyptus above .

Eucalyptus, lemon (leaf) - eucalyptus citriodora (china). see eucalyptus above .

Everlasting / aka: immortelle (flower) - helichrysum angustifolium (europe, france). fresh, richly aromatic fragrance, with the subtle scent of honey and flora. invigorate the mind, eases nervous tension, and uplifts the mood.

  • Actions: (clearing, focusing, refreshing, relaxing)
  • Blends well with: bergamot, chamomile, geranium, frankincense .

Fennel, sweet (seed) - foeniculum vulgare (europe, france, germany, india, japan, mediterranean, north america, poland, romania, russia, spain). sweet, floral, herby and slightly spicy aroma characteristic of the well known cooking herb. used extensively as a flavor and a fragrance.

  • Actions: (invigorating, restoring, stimulating, warming)
  • Caution:- skin irritant - avoid use in sun - avoid is pregnant, epileptic
  • Blends well with: geranium, hyssop, lavender, lemon, rose, sandalwood .

Fir needle (needle) - abies balsamea; siberica (canada, east asia, siberia). clear, balsamic, and refreshing aroma, highly esteemed for its fragrant scent.

  • Actions: (refreshing)
  • Blends well with: basil, cedarwood, frankincense .

Frankincense (resin) - boswellia carterii (africa, china, ethiopia, india, oman, somalia). soft, rich, balsamic, woody scent. used since antiquity in incense. many people use this oil when they meditate to calm the senses. often used in perfumes.

  • Actions: (calming, clarifying, clearing, focusing, grounding, relaxing, restoring, stress-reducing,tension-reducing, warming)
  • Caution:- avoid if pregnant.
  • Blends well with: ambrette, basil, bergamot, camphor, cardamom, cedarwood, chamomile, cinnamon, clary sage, coriander, galbanum, geranium, ginger, lavender, mandarin, myrrh, neroli, orange, pepper, pine, rosemary, sandalwood, vetiver bridge: middle - base

Galbanum (resin) - ferula galbaniflua (france, lebanon, middle east). earthy, fresh, herbal scent.

  • Actions: (energizing, revitalizing, stimulating, tension-reducing)
  • Blends well with: anise, armoise, chamomile, citronella, elemi, frankincense, geranium, ginger, jasmine, jonquil, myrrh, palmarosa, rose, sandalwood, ylang ylang .

Geranium (flower, leaf, stalk) - pelargonium graveolens (algeria, china, egypt, france, isle of reunion, madagascar, morocco, russia, south africa). floral, leafy, rose-like scent; the sweet aroma may help one achieve an overall feeling of peace, health, and emotional security.

  • Actions: (relaxing, balancing, cooling, encourages sense of well-being, normalizing, relaxing, soothing, stress/tension-reducing)
  • Caution:- avoid overuse - skin irritant - avoid with history of estrogen-dependent cancer or hypoglycemia - do not confuse with rose geranium
  • Blends well with: allspice, basil, bergamot, citronella, clary sage, carrot seed, clove, fennel, frankincense, galbanum, grapefruit, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, lime, mandarin, myrrh, neroli, nutmeg, palmarosa, patchouli, peppermint, petitgrain, rose, sandalwood, tangerine, tuberose, violet .

Ginger (root/stem) - zingiber officinale (africa, china, india, jamaica, japan). smoky, spicy, sweet, woodsy aroma, with a hint of lemon; aphrodisiac.

  • Actions: (anchoring, arousing, energizing, invigorating, stimulating, strengthening, stress-reducing, warming)
  • Caution:- slightly phototoxic; skin irritant
  • Blends well with: allspice, cajeput, cedarwood, cinnamon, clove, coriander, elemi, eucalyptus, frankincense, galbanum, geranium, lemon, lime, neroli, orange, patchouli, rose, rosemary, sandalwood, spearmint, verbena, vetiver .

Grapefruit, pink (peel) - citrus paradisi (florida-usa, israel). sweet, sharp, citrusy aroma.

  • Actions: (energizing, focusing, inspiring, invigorating, memory aid, refreshing, reviving, stimulating, stress-reducing, uplifting, warming)
  • Caution:- phototoxic
  • Blends well with: bergamot, cedarwood, cypress, frankincense, geranium, lavender, lemon, lime, mandarin, neroli, orange, palmarosa, rosemary, sage, tangerine, vanilla .

Helichrysum - see everlasting . .

Hops (bud/flower) - humulus lupulus (europe, new zealand, north america, russia, spain). herbal scent.

  • Actions: (calming, relaxing) .

Hyssop (flower/leaf) - hyssopus officinalis (brail, egypt, europe, france, india, italy, palestine). camphorous, fresh/herbal, sweet, spicy scent.

  • Actions: (balancing, clearing, focusing, refreshing, stimulating, stress/tension-reducing, warming)
  • Caution:- toxic - use in very low dosages - avoid if pregnant, history of epilepsy, high blood pressure.
  • Blends well with: basil, bergamot, celery, clary sage, clove, fennel, lavender, orange, rosemary, sage, tangerine

Jasmine absolute (flower) - jasminum grandiflorum (algeria, china, egypt, france, italy, morocco). sweet, floral, exotic aroma. called the "king of flower oils" has always had a reputation as an aphrodisiac.

  • Actions: (balancing, euphoric, hypnotic, relaxing, soothing, tension-reducing, warming)
  • Caution:- narcotic properties - avoid heavy use during pregnancy
  • Blends well with: bergamot, cardamom, chamomile, clary, sage, frankincense, galbanum, geranium, lemongrass, muget, neroli, oakmoss, orange, rose, sandalwood, spearmint, vetiver .

Juniper (berry) - juniperus communis (africa, bulgaria, europe, italy, north america, north asia, siberia). fresh, pine-like, woodsy scent; deodorant, aphrodisiac

  • Actions: (clearing, eases anxiety, energizing, invigorating, memory aid, refreshing, restoring, strengthening, stress-reducing)
  • Caution:- avoid long-term use - avoid if pregnant, high blood pressure, kidney disease - skin irritant
  • Blends well with: bergamot, cedarwood, chamomile, clary sage, cypress, elemi, eucalyptus, frankencense, geranium, lavender, myrrh, pine, rosemary, sandalwood, vetiver .

Lavender, french/fine (flower) - lavandula vera; augusytifolia; officinalis; dentata (bulgaria, france, spain). clean, fresh, floral, sweet scent, is gentle to the skin; deodorant. almost fruity sweet topnote; fresh herbaceous, overall coo; a pleasant, balsamic woody backnote. traditionally known to help soothe emotional extremes. when applied, may bring the aromatic influence of love and peace.

  • Actions: (balancing, calming, cooling, exhilarating, focusing, refreshing, relaxing, soothing, stress/tension-reducing)
  • Caution:- avoid during first trimester of pregnancy or low blood pressure - overuse can cause headaches - do not confuse with lavender spike
  • Blends well with: allspice, amyris, basil, bergamot, black pepper, carrot, cedarwood, chamomile, cistus, citronella, clary sage, clove, cypress, dill, eucalyptus, fennel, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, hyssop, juniper, lemon, lemongrass, lime, mandarin, marjoram, myrrh, musk, neroli, oakmoss, orange, patchouli, peppermint, petitgrain, pine, ravensara, rosemary, sandalwood, spearmint, spikenard, tangerine, tea tree, thyme, tonka bean, verbena, vetiver, wintergreen, yarrow bridge: top - middle .

Lemon (peel) - citrus limonum (argentina, brazil, israel, california-usa). fresh, tart, citrus, scent. although lemon oil is usually pressed from the peel. the highest quality is obtained when the oil is distilled from the whole lemon.

  • Actions: (balancing, refreshing, calming, cheering, cooling, memory aid, refreshing, relaxing, stimulating, stress-reducing, uplifting)
  • Caution:- phototoxic - may irritate sensitive skin - dilute well before use on skin
  • Blends well with: benzoin, bergamot, carrot, cedar, chamomile, citronella, cypress, eucalyptus, fennel, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, lavender, mandarin, neroli, orange, peppermint, rose, sage, sandalwood, tangerine, tea tree, thyme, vanilla, verbena, violet, ylang ylang .

Lemongrass (herb/leaf) - cymbopogon flexuous; citratus (brazil, central africa, ceylon, china, guatemala, haiti, sri lanka). fresh grassy-lemon scent. used extensively in soaps, perfumes and sprays; deodorant.

  • Actions: (calming, cleansing, focusing, invigorating, stress-reducing, vitalizing)
  • Caution:- phototoxic - avoid if pregnant or high blood pressure - avoid use on sensitive skin - dilute well before use on skin
  • Blends well with: basil, cedarwood, citronella, eucalyptus, geranium, jasmine, lavender, palmarosa, neroli, niaouli, tea tree, vetiver .

Lime (peel) - citrus aurantifolia (brazil, florida-usa, italy, mexico, west indies). fresh, sweet, green, zesty scent. like lemon, oil is usually pressed from peel, but this oil may also be distilled from the leaves and flowers or the whole fruit.

  • Actions: (cheering, refreshing, uplifting anxiety, cheering, cleansing, concentration, energizing, equalizing, exhaustion, invigorating, refreshing, stimulating, uplifting)
  • Caution:- phototoxic - may irritate sensitive skin
  • Blends well with: bay, bergamot, birch, carrot, citronella, clary sage, clove bud, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, lavender, mandarin, neroli, nutmeg, rose, rosemary, tangerine, ylang ylang .

Litsea cubeba (fruit) - litsea cubeba (china). citrus and fruity fragrance with floral undertones. also known as may chang, it is know for its ability to anchor citrus notes.

  • Actions: (stimulating, uplifting)
  • Blends well with: lavender, neroli, verbena

Mandarin, red (peel) - citrus nobilis; reticulata (argentina, brazil, china, india, italy, spain). light, floral, citrus scent.

  • Actions: (calming, cheering, stimulating, strengthening, stress-reducing)
  • Caution:- phototoxic
  • Blends well with: anise, basil, bergamot, camphor, clary sage, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, lime, marjoram, neroli, nutmeg, orange, rose, sage, vanilla, verbena .

Marjoram (flower/leaf) - thymus mastichina (egypt, france, germany, hungary, portugal, spain). warm, herbal, pepper-like, spicy aroma.

  • Actions: (calming, eases aggression/anxiety, relaxing, soothing, strengthening, stress reducing, warming)
  • Caution:- avoid use on children and elderly - avoid if pregnant, low blood pressure
  • Blends well with: basil, bergamot, cedarwood, chamomile, cypress, eucalyptus, lavender, mandarin, nutmeg, orange, pepper, peppermint, rosemary, rosewood, tea tree, thyme, ylang ylang bridge: top - middle .

Melissa / aka: lemon balm, sweet balm (leaf) - melissa officinalis (europe, france, mediterranean). sharp, floral, lemon-like arome. true melissa is distilled from lemon balm. most of the melissa essential oil offered is a mixture of lemon-scented oils which might even include citronella; this is considered "the most adulterated essential oil in the industry". it takes approximately 1.5 tons of the plant to obtain a pound of oil, thus the expensive price of the true, unadulterated essential oil

  • Actions: (calming, eases anxiety, inspiring, relaxing, stress/tension-reducing, uplifting)
  • Caution:- may irritate skin - may trigger allergic reactions - avoid if pregnant
  • Blends well with: - - .

Myrrh (resin) - commiphora myrrha; molmol (africa, ethiopia, somalia). warm, balsamic, spicy, smoky and slightly musky in aroma, rare and precious, a traditional perfume which is easy on the skin; deodorant. often used in massage.

  • Actions: (clearing, focusing, soothing, stimulating, warming)
  • Caution:- avoid during pregnancy
  • Blends well with: clove, cypress, frankincense, galbanum, geranium, juniper, lavender, orange, patchouli, pine, sandalwood bridge: middle - base .

Myrtle (leaf/stem) - myrtus communis (spain). fresh, slightly sweet and penetrating scent.

  • Actions: (anger-abating)
  • Blends well with: coriander, lavender, rosemary, tea tree .

Neroli / aka: orange blossom (flower) - citrus aurantium (egypt, france, italy, morocco, spain, tunisia). beautiful floral fragrance, both bitter and sweet; aphrodisiac, deodorant.

  • Actions: (eases aggression/anxiety, calming, centering, focusing, hypnotic, inspiring, memory aid, relaxing, stress/tension-reducing, uplifting)
  • Blends well with: ambrette, benzoin, bergamot, cardamom, carrot, chamomile, clary sage, coriander, frankincense, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, lemon, lime, mandarin, orange, patchouli, rose, tangerine, ylang ylang bridge: top - middle .

Niaouli / aka: gomenol (leaf/stem) - melaleuca quinquenervia viridiflora (australia, east indies, spain, tasmania). slightly sweet, penetrating aroma, eucalyptus/pine-like

  • Actions: (clearing, invigorating, refreshing, soothing)
  • Blends well with: coriander, fennel, juniper, orange, peppermint .

Nutmeg (seed) - myristica fragrans (east indies, indonesia, sumatra, west indies). spicy, warm and nutty/ woodsy odor.

  • Actions: (eases anxiety/irritability, energizing, rejuvenating, stress-reducing, uplifting, warming)
  • Caution:- use with caution and moderation
  • Blends well with: bay, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, coriander, geranium, lime, landarin, larjoram, orange, petitgrain, rosemary, tea tree bridge: top - middle .

Oakmoss absolute (lichen-whole plant) - evernia prusnatri (spain). viscous liquid with an extremely intense aroma reminiscent of a damp forest floor; aphrodisiac.

  • Actions: (calming, cooling, mood-enhancing)
  • Caution:- can irritate sensitive skin
  • Blends well with: cedarwood, citrus oils, hyacinth, jasmine, pine, rose, vetiver .

Orange, bitter (peel) - citrus aurantium (brazil, france, central america, north america, south america, spain, west indies). brisk, refreshing, fruity; zesty, refreshing citrus fragrance.

  • Actions: (calming, cheering, eases anxiety, inspiring, invigorating, refreshing, relaxing, stress-reducing, uplifting)
  • Blends well with: basil, camphor, cardamom, carrot, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, frankincense, ginger, grapefruit, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, mandarin, marjoram, myrrh, neroli, nutmeg, patchouli, petitgrain, rose, sage, sandalwood, tangerine, vanilla, verbena, ylang ylang .

Orange, sweet (peel) - citrus aurantium (brazil, france, central america, north america, south america, spain, west indies). tangy, bright refreshing scent; zesty, refreshing citrus fragrance.

  • Actions: (calming, cheering, eases anxiety, inspiring, invigorating, refreshing, relaxing, stress-reducing, uplifting)
  • Blends well with: basil, camphor, cardamom, carrot, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, frankincense, ginger, grapefruit, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, mandarin, marjoram, myrrh, neroli, nutmeg, patchouli, petitgrain, rose, sage, sandalwood, tangerine, vanilla, verbena, ylang ylang .

Oregano (flower/leaf) - thymus capitatus, origanum vulgare (asia, egypt, europe, north africa, spain). from the greek oreganos, "delight-of-the-mountain". warm, herbaceous/woody, slightly spicy scent.

  • Actions: (stimulating, strengthening, warming)
  • Caution:- avoid if pregnant - irritant to skin, mucous membranes.
  • Blends well with: basil, fennel, geranium, pine bridge: top - middle

Palmarosa (herb-whole plant) - cymbopogon martini (brazil, central america, india). citrus, floral, grassy fragrance with a hint of rose.

  • Actions: (calming, eases aggression/anxiety, inspiring, relaxing, stress-reducing, uplifting)
  • Blends well with: amyris, bergamot, cedarwood, citronella, galbanum, geranium, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, lemongrass, petitgrain, rose, sandalwood bridge: top - middle .

Parsley (seed) - petroselinum sativum (india). fresh, grassy, somewhat herby aroma with spicy undertones; aphrodisiac

  • Blends well with: lavender, lime, orange .

Patchouli (leaf) - pogostemon patchouli; cablin (china, indonesia, japan, madagascar). exotic, earthy, balsamic, spicy-sweet, woodsy scent, often prized as a personal fragrance; deodorant. an aphrodisiac; when diffused, this aromatic oil helps create an amorous atmosphere.

  • Actions: (calming, clearing, eases anxiety, focusing, increases desire, relaxing, soothing, stress-reducing, stimulating)
  • Blends well with: allspice, armoise, balsam peru, bergamot, black pepper, carnation, cedarwood, chamomile, clary sage, clove, frankincense, geranium, ginger, jasmine, lavender, myrrh, neroli, rose, sandalwood, spikenard, vetiver bridge: middle - base.

Pennyroyal (leaf) - mentha pulegium (morocco). herbaceous, minty scent

  • Blends well with: cedarwood, peppermint .

Peppermint (herb-whole plant) - mentha piperita (china, europe, united states). powerful sharp, minty scent; deodorant.

  • Actions: (cooling, focusing, invigorating, memory aid, refreshing, relaxing, revitalizing, stimulating)
  • Caution:- avoid if pregnant, high blood pressure, with homeopathic remedies - may irritate sensitive skin
  • Blends well with: bergamot, cedarwood, cypress, eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, lemon, marjoram, niaouli, pine, rosemary, sandalwood.

Pettigrain (leaf/stem) - citrus aurantium; hystrix (africa, europe, france, italy, morocco, paraguay, south america). strong citrus, sweet, woodsy; a fragrance that is alternately woody and floral; deodorant.

  • Actions: (calming, inspiring, invigorating, refreshing, relaxing, soothing, uplifting)
  • Caution:- avoid on sensitive skin
  • Blends well with: bergamot, cedarwood, clary sage, frankincense, geranium, lavender, neroli, nutmeg, orange, rosemary, rosewood, sandalwood.

Pine (needle) - pinus sylvestris (bulgaria, europe, north america, russia). crisp, fresh, sweet scent; deodorant. pine needle oil differs from pine oil, which may utilize all or any part of the tree.

  • Actions: (cleansing, clearing, refreshing, rejuvenating, revitalizing, stimulating, strengthening, stress-reducing)
  • Caution:- avoid if history of prostate cancer or high blood pressure - may irritate sensitive skin
  • Blends well with: cedarwood, citronella, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, juniper, lavender, myrrh, myrtle, niaouli, rosemary, spikenard, tea tree.

Ravensara (bark/leaf) - ravensara anisata; aromatica (australia, madagascar). eucalyptus-like, medicinal, woodsy scent, a mild version of rosemary.

  • Actions: (balancing, calming, clearing, relaxing)
  • Blends well with: chamomile, clove, eucalyptus, lavender, pine, rosemary.

Rose otto (flower) - rosa damascena; centrifolia (bulgaria, france, morocco, russia, turkey). intense, floral, sweet, honey-like, exquisite fragrance; aphrodisiac. also known as damask rose.

  • Actions: (balancing, calming, cheering, cooling, hypnotic, memory aid, relaxing, stress/tension-reducing, uplifting)
  • Caution:- avoid if pregnant, high blood pressure
  • Blends well with: ambrette, bergamot, black pepper, cardamom, chamomile, clary sage, clove, fennel, galbanum, geranium, ginger, jasmine, lavender, lemon, mandarin, musk, neroli, oakmoss, orange, patchouli, sandalwood, tangerine, vetiver, ylang ylang.

Rosehip co2 (seed) - rosa canina; rubignosa (chile, germany). the co2 extracted oil is not subject to the short shelf life usually associated with this oil .

rosemary (flower/leaf/twig) - rosmarinus officinalis (france, japan, morocco, spain, tunisia, yugoslavia). a strong, fresh camphorous, medicinal, woodsy scent; aphrodisiac. characteristic of this cooking herb. used as a fragrance and a flavor.

  • Actions: (clarifying, focusing, inspiring, invigorating, memory aid, stimulating, stress/tension-reducing, warming, uplifting)
  • Caution:- avoid if pregnant, high blood pressure, epilepsy, or if taking homeopathic remedies - may be a skin irritant - avoid use on damaged skin
  • Blends well with: armoise, basil, bergamot, black pepper, cade, caraway, carrot, cedarwood, chamomile, cinnamon, elemi, eucalyptus, frankincense, ginger, grapefruit, hyssop, juniper, lavender, lemon, lime, marjoram, nutmeg, orange, peppermint, petitgrain, pine, ravensara, sage, tea tree, thyme bridge: top - middle.

Rosewood / aka: bois de rose (wood) - aniba rosaeodora (brazil, peru). sweet, woody-floral scent with a hint of spice; aphrodisiac; deodorant. a popular fragrance extensively used in perfumes, soaps, massage oils and bath oils.

  • Actions: (calming, comforting)
  • Blends well with: cedarwood, coriander, frankincense, rose, sandalwood, vetiver bridge: top - middle.

Sage, dalmatian (flower/leaf) - salvia officinalis (china, croatia, france, mediterranean, spain, yugoslavia). strong, camphorous, herbal scent; powerful and penetrating. also used in cooking.

  • Actions: (cheering, energizing, memory aid, soothing, stimulating, warming)
  • Caution:- moderate toxicity - avoid with children, if pregnant, with high blood pressure, with epilepsy
  • Blends well with: armoise, bergamot, grapefruit, hyssop, lemon, mandarin, orange, rosemary.

Sandalwood (wood) - santalum album (europe, india, indonesia, north america). rare and precious, with a deep, soft, balsamic, sweet-woody scent; aphrodisiac; deodorant. one of the oldest known perfume materials with at least a 4,000-year history.

  • Actions: (calming, centering, grounding, relaxing, revitalizing, stress-reducing)
  • Blends well with: ambrette, balsam peru, basil, benzoin, bergamot, black pepper, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, daphne, fennel, frankincense, galbanum, geranium, ginger, honeysuckle, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, muguet, myrrh, neroli, palmarosa, patchouli, peppermint, rose, spearmint, vanilla, vetiver, violet bridge: middle - base.

Spearmint (flower) - mentha spicata; viridis (china, europe, mediterranean, russia, usa). fresh, minty scent, very similar to peppermint, slightly sweeter; deodorant.

  • Actions: (cooling, energizing, invigorating, refreshing, revitalizing, stimulating)
  • Caution:- avoid if pregnant, if using homeopathic remedies - may irritate mucous membranes
  • Blends well with: basil, bergamot, birch, eucalyptus, ginger, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, rosemary, sandalwood.

Spikenard (root) - nardostachys jatamansi (india). heavy, sweet, woodsy scent.

  • Actions: (calming, inspiring, rejuvenating, stress/tension-reducing)
  • Caution:- avoid if pregnant
  • Blends well with: lavender, patchouli, pine, vetiver.

Spruce (needle) - tsuga canadensi (canada). fresh pine, bitter orange peel aroma

  • Blends well with: lavender, clary sage

Tagetes (flower) - tagetes glandulifera (madagascar). minty, sweetish, fruity ordor. many people find the aroma somewhat disturbing.

  • Caution:- do not use if pregnant or on children phototoxic; do not use prior to exposure to simulated or natural sunlight
  • Blends well with: - -.

Tangerine (peel) - citrus reticulata (brazil, florida-usa). fresh, light, sweet, citrus, tangy scented oil, similar to orange oil, but has its own unique fragrance.

  • Actions: (calming, cheering, relaxing, soothing, stress-reducing, uplifting)
  • Caution:- phototoxic; do not use on skin exposed to direct sunlight
  • Blends well with: basil, bergamot, chamomile, clary sage, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, hyssop, lavender, lemon, lime, neroli, orange, rose, vanilla, verbena.

Tea tree (leaf/twig) - malaleuca alternifoli (australia). herbal, spicy, medicinal, camphor-like, woodsy scent. a common ingredient in soaps, toothpastes, disinfectants, gargles, acne creams and even colognes.

  • Actions: (cleansing, cooling, energizing, stimulating, uplifting)
  • Caution:- may irritate sensitive skin areas
  • Blends well with: cinnamon, clary sage, clove, cypress, eucalyptus, geranium, ginger, lavender, lemon, marjoram, nutmeg, pine, rosemary, ylang ylang, thyme.

Thyme, red (flower/leaf) - thymus vulgaris (egypt, hungary, mediterranean, spain). iintense, herbal, medicinal, spicy scent; deodorant, aphrodisiac; characteristic of the culinary herb. used both as a flavoring and a fragrance. also used in mouthwashes, toothpaste and cough lozenges.

  • Actions: (cleansing, energizing, inspiring, invigorating, memory aid, refreshing, stimulating, warming)
  • Caution:- avoid if pregnant, high blood pressure - skin irritant - moderate toxicity - avoid use on children and elderly
  • Blends well with: armoise, bergamot, cade, cedarwood, chamomile, eucalyptus, lavender, lemon, marjoram, muguet, rosemary bridge: top - middle.

Thyme, white (flower/leaf) - thymus vulgaris (spain). see thyme, red .

Vanilla absolute (bean) - vanilla planifolia (france, madagascar). sweet balsamic aroma; aphrodisiac.

  • Actions: (calming, creativity, hypnotic, restoring, warming)
  • Blends well with: bergamot, grapefruit, lemon, mandarin, orange, sandalwood, tangerine, vetiver bridge: middle - base.

Vanilla extract (bean) - see vanilla absolute above . .

Verbena / aka: lemon verbena (flower/leaf) - lippia citriodora (france, spain). light, fresh, citrus scent; smells of sweet lemons; aphrodisiac.

  • Actions: (refreshing, stimulating, uplifting)
  • Caution:- phototoxic
  • Blends well with: basil, bergamot, chamomile, geranium, lavender, mandarin, orange, neroli, rose, rosemary, tangerine.

Vetiver / aka: vetivert (root) - vetiveria zizanoides (haiti, india, indonesia, japan, java, north america, philippines). heavy, citrus, slightly-sweet, smoky, earthy, tobacco-like, woodsy scent; aphrodisiac.

  • Actions: (anchoring, balancing, eases aggression, grounding, relaxing, revives exhaustion, soothing, stress/tension-reducing)
  • Blends well with: cedarwood, chamomile, frankincense, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemongrass, patchouli, rose, sandalwood, spikenard, vanilla, violet, ylang ylang bridge: middle - base.

Violet absolute (leaf) - viola odorata (england, france, greece, italy). herbal, sweet scent.

  • Actions: (balancing, energizing, revitalizing)
  • Blends well with: basil, cardamom, cedarwood, clary sage, heliotrope, lemon, sandalwood, vetiver.

White pine - see pine . .

Wintergreen (leaf) - gualtheria procumbens (china, north america). fresh, minty, sweet, woodsy scent.

  • Actions: (invigorating, refreshing, stimulating)
  • Caution:- avoid if pregnant, aversion to aspirin; high toxicity; skin irritant
  • Blends well with: birch, lavender.

Wormwood (herb) - artemesia absinthium (usa). . .

Yarrow / aka: milfoil (flower/leaf) - achillea millefolium (africa, bulgaria, europe, north america). rich, floral, dry herbaceous aroma; pale yellow to bright blue in color.

  • Actions: (calming, relaxing, soothing)
  • Blends well with: lavender.

Ylang ylang I (flower) - cananga odorata var genuina (indonesia, madagascar, philippines). sweet, floral, heavy aroma. floral, heady, oriental, sweet exotic fragrance; aphrodisiac. tropical islanders have long credited the sweet, heady aroma of ylang ylang blossoms with the capacity to help ease the unpleasant effects of stress and nervousness. the oil is considered one of the most romantic essential oils. the distilled oil is collected in three stages. "type I" is the top or first run and is considered premium with a fuller, more complex nose. "type III" (below) is the last run. "complete" (also below) is a combination of all three stages.

  • Actions: (balancing, calming, cooling, eases aggression/anxiety, euphoric, relaxing, vitalizing, uplifting)
  • Caution:- avoid if history of apnea or low blood pressure - may irritate sensitive skin - do not overuse
  • Blends well with: allspice, bergamot, camphor, cardamom, cedarwood, chamomile, citronella, clove, galbanum, jasmine, lavender, lemon, marjoram, neroli, rose, rosewood, tea tree, verbena, vetiver.

Ylang ylang III (flower) - see ylang ylang I above. .

Yylang ylang complete (flower) - see ylang ylang I above



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