# Weights & Measures Used in Herbalism

You will encounter many different ways of preparing ingredients and you will need to know what some of these terms are and how they equate to a measurement term with which you're familiar. For instance, in determining the measure of the term handful - you must remember that many old herbal recipes were passed along by women whose measure of a handful or a pinch was made by a medium sized hand. When formulating herbal remedies, it is important to have accurate measurements. In dealing with very potent herbs it is absolutely vital.

Abbreviatione of different systems and their various measurements. These systems are:

• liq = (common) liquid measure
• afm = apothecaries fluid measure
• dry = (common) dry measure
• avdp = (common) avoirdupois weight
• ap = apothecaries weight
• m = metric

If you don't have a system of keeping herbal information, then the articles which appear at this site will be a good opportunity to begin.

Conversion Table
Changing from

= Result

Multiply by Factor
grains

grams

.0648
grams

grains

15.4324
grams

ounces (avdp)

.0353
grams

pounds

.002205
liters

pints (dry)

1.8162
liters

pints (liq)

2.1134
liters

quarts (dry)

.9081
liters

quarts (liq)

1.0567

Liquids

 1 drop = 1 minim (afm) = 1/60th fluid dram 1 dram (fl or liq - US) = 1/8 fl oz = 0.226 cubic inch = 3.697 ml = 1.041 British fluid drachms = 1 tsp 60 drops (minims) = 1 fluid dram (afm) = 1 tsp 1 measuring tsp = 1/3 tbsp = 1-1/3 fl drams = 5 ml 1 measuring tbsp = 3 tsp = 4 fl drams = 1/2 fl oz = 15 ml 8 tsp (fl. drams) = 1 fluid ounce (afm) 16 fl oz (afm) = 1 pint (afm) = 128 fl drams (afm) 2 pints = 1 quart = 32 fl oz = 256 fl drams 4 quarts = 1 gal = 128 fl oz = 1,024 fl drams 1 milliliter = 0.271 fl dram = 16.231 minims = 1/5 tsp 1 fl or liq oz = 29.574 ml = 1.041 British fl oz 1 gill = 4 fl oz = 0.118 liter 4 gills (liq) = 1 pint 2 pints = 1 quart 4 quarts = 1 gallon = 8 pints = 32 gills 1 liter = 1.057 liq quarts = 61.024 cubic inches 1 gallon (US) = 231 cubic inches = 3.785 liters = 0.833 British gallons = 128 fl oz (US) 1 gallon British Imperial = 277.42 cubic inches = 1.201 US gallons = 4.546 liters = 160 Br. fl oz 1 barrel liquid = 31 to 42 gallons (law allows for a variety of sizes: petroleum products are usually found in the larger sized barrels, while fermented/alcoholic beverages are to be found in the smaller sized barrels although federal law recognizes a 40 gallon barrel for proof spirits)

Dry Weights & Measurements
 1 ml = 0.015 grain 1 grain = 64.79891 ml 1 gram = 15.432 grains = 0.035 oz (avdp) 27.344 grains (advp) = 1 dram (avdp) = 1.772 grams 16 drams (advp) = 1 oz (advp) = 437.5 grains (advp) 16 oz (advp) = 1 lb (advp) = 256 drams (advp) = 7,000 grains (advp) 1 kilogram = 2.205 lb 1 quart British = 69.354 cubic inches = 1.032 US quarts (dry) 2 pints = 1 quart = 67.2006 cubic inches 8 quarts = 1 peck = 16 pints = 537.605 cubic inches 4 pecks = 1 bushel = 32 quarts = 2,150.42 cubic inches 1 bushel (US struck measure) = 2,150.42 cubic inches = 35.238 liters 1 bushel (heaped) = 2,747.715 cubic inches = 1.278 bushels (struck measure) (note: this is frequently recognized as 1-1/4 bushel, struck measure) 1 barrel (standard for fruits, vegetables and other dry goods except cranberries) = 105 dry quarts = 3.281 bu (struck measure), = 7,056 cubic inches 1 barrel (stand. cranberry) = 5,286 cubic inches = 86-45/64 dry quarts = 2.709 bu (struck measure)

Apothecary Weight

 1 grain = 64.79891 ml 20 grains = 1 scruple 3 scruples = 1 dram (ap) = 60 grains = 3.888 grams 8 drams (ap) = 1 oz (ap) = 24 scruples = 480 grains 12 oz (ap) = 1 lb (ap) = 96 drams (ap) = 288 scruples = 5,760 grains (ap)

More Metrics

 1 ml = 1/5 tsp 5 ml = 1 tsp 15 ml = 1 tbsp 34 ml = 1 fl oz 100 ml = 3.4 fl oz 240 ml = 1 cup 1 liter = 34 fl oz = 4.2 cups = 2.1 pints = 1.06 quarts = 0.26 gallon 1 gram = .035 oz 100 grams = 3.5 oz 500 grams = 1.10 lbs 1 kg = 2.205 lbs = 35 oz 1 cubic centimeter = 0.061 cubic inch 1 cubic foot = 7.481 gallons = 28.316 cubic decimeters 1 cubic inch = 0.554 fl oz = 4.433 fluid drams = 16.387 cubic centimeters

Kitchen Equivalents

 1 minim = 1 drop 1/5 tsp = 20 drops = 1 milliliter 1 tsp = 5 ml = 60 drops (or minims) = 1 drachm (British) = 1 dram = 4.2 grams 2 tsp = 10 ml 3 tsp = 1 tbsp = 15 ml = 14 grams 1 fl oz = 30 ml (by weight but 34 ml by capacity) = 28 grams 1/16 cup = 1 tbsp 1/8 cup = 2 tbsp 1/6 cup = 2 tbsp + 2 tsp 1/5 cup = 50 ml 1/4 cup = 4 tbsp 1/3 cup = 5 tbsp + 1 tsp 3/8 cup = 6 tbsp 1/2 cup = 8 tbsp 3/4 cup = 12 tbsp 2/3 cup = 10 tbsp + 2 tsp 1 cup = 240 ml = 8 fl oz = 1/2 pint (liq) = 16 tbsp = 48 tsp 2 cups = 1 pint = 470 ml 2 pints = 1 quart = .95 liter = 4 cups 1 liter = 34 fl oz = 4.2 cups = 2.1 pints = 1.06 quarts = 0.26 gallon 4 quarts = 1 gallon = 3.8 liters 1 pound = 454 grams 1 gram = .035 oz 100 grams = 3.5 oz 500 grams = 1.20 lbs 1 kg = 2.205 lbs or 35 oz 1000 grams = 1 kilogram 1 glassful = 8 fl oz = 16 tbsp = 60 fl drams = 240 ml 1 teacupful = 4 fl oz = 8 tbsp = 30 drams = 120 ml 1 wineglassful = 2 fl oz = 4 tbsp = 15 fl drams = 60 ml 1 tbsp = 1/2 fl oz = 4 fl drams = 15 ml 1 dessertspoonful = 2 fl drams = 8 ml

### Rough Measurements

If you plan to do much work with herbs and especially if you plan to use herbs medicinally, you should have a good kitchen scale that measures in grams and ounces. Cuisinart puts out an inexpensive one based on the counterweight system that works well. Where exactness doesn't matter (and medicinally, it does!), these rough equivalents should help.

 1 oz = 1/3 cup of powdered or ground material 1 oz = 3/4 cup fine dried material 1 oz = 1 cup bulky dried material

### Dosages

The formulations/recipes presented in most materials refer to adult dosages (unless the work is specifically geared toward remedies for children). To work the dosages for children there are several different methods and charts.

• Young's Formula - Take the age in years of the child and divide by the age in years of the child + 12 and this will equal the portion of the adult dose to administer.
• Example: a 6 year old child divided by 6 + 12 (18) = 1/3 the adult dose
• Dillings Formula - Take the age in years of the child and divide by 20 to get the portion of the adult dose to administer.
• Example: a 6 year old child = 6 divided by 20 = 3/10ths the adult dose
• Cowling's Rule - Divide the age at the next birthday by 24.
• Example: a 5-year-old would be 6 at the next birthday; 6 divided by 24 equals 6/24 or 1/4. Dose would be 1/4 the adult dosage.
• Clark's Rule - Divide the weight in *pounds of the child by 150 to give the approximate fraction of the adult dosage.

(*pounds: using a dosage based on the weight is a more sensible choice. Children vary considerably in size despite their ages. A small 6 year old would require less than a large 6 year old)

Note - Administering home remedies to infants and young children is NOT recommended without professional guidance.

Chart of Dosages (based on average of 1 tsp per adult dose)
• 0 to 3 months = 2 drops
• 6 to 9 months = 4 drops
• 1 yr to 18 mos = 7 drops
• 2 to 3 years = 10 drops
• 4 years = 1/4 tsp or 15 drops or 1/6 adult dose
• 6 years = 1/4 tsp or 15 drops or 1/4 adult dose
• 8 years = 1/3 adult dose
• 9 to 12 years = 1/2 tsp or 30 drops
• 12 years = 1/2 adult dose
• 15 years = 2/3 adult dose or 3/4 tsp or 45 drops
• 18 or over = adult portion of 1 tsp or 60 drops

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